RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND RURAL/URBAN MIGRATION, PROBLEMS, AND PROSPECT
This study was meant to determine the effect of rural development on rural-urban migration. The study was guided by the specific objectives; To determine whether rural development can serve as a panacea for rural-urban migration, To find out the socio-economic causes of rural-urban migration, To determine the implications of rural-urban migration on rural development, to identify measures put in place for rural development by government.
The study employed the survey research design; questionnaires in addition to library research were applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources were used and data was analyzed which was presented in frequency tables and percentages… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Background of the Study
Rural areas are a key sector in every nation’s economy and their rapid development and modernization have gained the attention of policymakers and governments all over the world. This is because a sizeable majority of the population lives therein therefore; the future of the country depends largely on it.
The American Bureau of Census classifies a group of people living in a community having a population of not more than 2,500 people as rural, whereas in Nigeria, the Federal Office of Statistics defines a community with less than 20,000 people as rural. According to Afolayan (1995), rural areas can be easily identified by various criteria, apart from the population.
Such criteria include the level of infrastructural development i.e. road networks, educational institutions, water supply, electricity, health facilities, communication, etc. Other criteria used include Occupation, Housing, Extent of community planning, etc.
Typically, rural dwellers are less vocal, characterized by a culture of poverty, as most people live barely above subsistence level (Laah et al, 2013). Rural areas in developing countries are usually deprived of the basic needs of life such as housing, medical care, postal communication, education, transport, etc.
Specifically, rural areas refer to geographical areas that lie outside the densely built-up environment of towns, cities, and the sub-urban villages and whose inhabitants are engaged primarily in agriculture as well as the most basic of a rudimentary form of secondary and tertiary activities (Ezeah, 2005).
Rural area, which is the opposite of an urban area, refers to the countryside whose population engages mainly in primary production activities like agriculture, fishing, and rearing of livestock (Ele, 2006). About 90 percent of the rural labor workforce engages directly or indirectly in agriculture (Nyagba, 2009)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Statement of the Problem
Given the contributions of the rural sector to the national economy, enhancing the development of the sector should be a priority to the government and relevant stakeholders. This is necessary as such would further enhance the ability of the sector for increased contribution to the overall national growth and development.
Unfortunately, over the years, the development strategies and efforts in Nigeria has been more urban-based resulting in the relative neglect of rural areas as evidenced by the dearth of basic infrastructure in the rural areas such as good roads, well equipped and functional hospitals, electricity, pipe-borne water, etc (Abah, 2010).
Abonyi and Nnamani (2011) also noted that rural poverty persists in Nigeria despite the prosperity created by the country’s oil wealth as evidenced by the difficulty experienced in getting basic daily needs such as food, water, and shelter. Lack of these basic life needs in the rural areas has made a number of rural dwellers migrate to urban centers with high hopes of improving their standard of living… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The general objective of this study is to determine the effect of rural development on rural-urban migration. The specific objectives are;
- To determine whether rural development can serve as a panacea for rural-urban migration
- To find out the socio-economic causes of rural-urban migration… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The key to the successful development of a nation among other things is the promotion of a viable rural economy. The challenges and prospects of rural development in Nigeria have been of great concern to the different tiers of government due to the increased rate of rural-urban migration.
The various policies of the Nigerian government on rural development are to improve the living condition in rural areas with a view to curbing the streaming rural-urban migration… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Meaning of Rural Development
Development is an all-encompassing word that involves the gradual growth of something or advancement through progressive changes over time (Hornby, 2000). These changes may be multi-dimensional involving changes in structures, attitudes, institutions as well as the acceleration of economic growth, reduction of inequality, and eradication of absolute poverty in society (Umeabali, 2006).
Development involves economic growth, equality or social justice, and socio-economic changes that are self-sustaining. Development is that process which is concerned with the general improvement of man’s living conditions. Thus, both the physical and psychological elements of development mutually reinforce each other in the process of general upliftment, which is indispensable to development.
Therefore, rural development is a determined and concise attempt to focus on the general upliftment of man’s living conditions in the rural area… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
- The Principles of Rural Development
Rural development entails not only infrastructural development but also constitutes the substance of rural welfare. Efforts to raise rural welfare must, therefore, go beyond the traditional and limited approach of raising per capita income through agriculture.
Agricultural development projects to the provision of rural basic needs such as health and medical facilities, rural transportation facilities, electricity, pipe-borne water, and schools. Rural dwellers must be appreciated beyond their roles as mere producers of food and fiber for the needs of the urban economy.
- Citizen Participation
This principle is deeply rooted in the concept of community development, which entails that whatever is done to improve the welfare of a people must endeavor to elicit the enthusiasm of such people. This portrays community development as cooperation or partnership in progress along with relevant stakeholders.
This principle further stipulates that the rural people should take part in the planning, execution, utilization, and assessment of the social amenities or facilities designed to improve their welfare in their area. It is this participation that gives the people the pride of ownership of the facilities completed in the process of community development… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material
- Challenges of Rural Development
The challenges confronting rural communities especially in developing countries are numerous and cut across all spheres of life. Notable challenges are the basic needs such as amenities, occupation, infrastructure, and poverty. Umebali and Akubuilo (2006) as cited by (Laah D.E et al, 2013) list some of these challenges to include:
- High population density
- Poor infrastructure
- High level of illiteracy… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The basic needs of rural dwellers include food, shelter, and clothing. They are the three most important needs for human survival. Most families cannot afford three meals a day and hardly eat to satisfaction, which is due to low income earning.
The effect of malnutrition on the rural population is quite adverse. Apart from resulting in low agricultural output, it is also responsible for the poor health conditions prevalent in the rural areas. The inadequate shelter also affects the health, welfare, and productivity of the rural dwellers who are daily exposed to the extremes of harsh weather conditions.
Agriculture is the main occupation in rural areas; despite this the level of food production is low. This is attributable to low crop yields, decreasing soil fertility with limited use of fertilizer, unimproved crop varieties, and breeds of livestock, lack of credit, the dearth of storage facilities, inadequate extension services, and unmechanized agriculture. About 70% of rural inhabitants engage in agriculture and 30% engage in other activities such as animal rearing, fishing, etc… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Meaning Of Rural-Urban Migration
Rural-urban migration is one of the most discomfiting problems facing Nigerian socio-economic development. Rural-urban migration represents a phenomenon of unprecedented movement of people from the rural countryside to the urban cities.
Historically, migration existed internally across city boundaries to enable excess labor to be taken slowly from the rural areas to provide the workforce for industries in the urban areas and therefore aid industrialization and economic growth.
However, over time, the rate of rural-urban migration has rapidly outweighed the rate of job creation in developing and underdeveloped countries with overstretched available social and infrastructural facilities in the urban areas… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Review of Related Literature
In a study conducted by Oladeji and Udoh (2012) on rural-urban migration, and migrants’ perceptions of problems and benefits in Oyo state of Nigeria findings revealed that several ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors encourage migration of single youths who are ill-equipped in terms of education and skills acquisition to combat the difficulties associated with moving into a new location.
It also shows that newly migrated youths are more focused on the immediate personal benefits in terms of regular cash income generated without considering the problems it might pose to the society or the agricultural sector. Older and longer established migrants, however, see the problems created in the society rather than the benefits.
Among the problems created are a decline in production and manpower reduction. In a cross-sectional study of causes and effects of rural-urban migration in Borno state: a case of Maiduguri metropolis, Gimba, and Kumshe (2012) found that the major causes of rural-urban migration are searched for better education, employment, and business opportunities; while others include: poverty, unemployment, famine, and inadequate social amenities in the rural areas.
However, while some of the consequences of rural-urban migration include pressure on urban housing and the environment in general, high rate of population growth in the urban centers also lessens the quality of life, with overpopulation and congestion encouraging increased crime rate in the society and with the slow pace of development of the rural areas… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This chapter encompasses the steps employed in carrying out the study. They include research design, the population of the study, sample and sampling technique, validity and reliability of the instrument, administration of instrument, data collection, and method of analysis.
The researcher made use of survey research design to collect data on rural development as a means to combat rural-urban migration in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. Nwogu (1991), defines survey research as one in which a group of people or items is studied by collecting and analyzing data from only a few people or items considered to be representative of the entire group.
The population of this study comprises all the cities, towns, and villages in Nigeria but respondents were only drawn from Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. These respondents span the entire towns and villages in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
ANALYSIS OF DATA AND PRESENTATION OF RESULTS
This chapter deals with the presentation and interpretation of results from the data collected. Section A of the questionnaire contains the bio-data of the respondents while Sections B and C contain the main questions concerning the causes and consequences of deforestation
These questions are set to elicit information or answers from the respondents. In all, a total of sixty (50) questionnaires were administered to various respondents that make up the sample population.
Table 4.1: Gender distribution
|Gender||No of Respondents||Percentage|
The above table shows that 31 respondents representing 62 percent were male and 19 respondents representing 38 percent were female. However, there are more male respondents than female.
Table 4.2: Occupational Distribution
|Occupation of Respondents||No of Respondents||Percentage|
The above table shows that 5 respondents representing 10 percent of the total sampled population are civil servant while 21 respondents representing 42 percent of the population are Entrepreneurs; 7 respondents representing 14 percent of the total sampled population are engineers while 17 respondents representing 34 percent of the population belong to other categories of the profession. The table further revealed that majority of the respondents is entrepreneurs while civil; the servant has the lowest frequency of 5 respondents.
Table 3: Age Distribution
|Age of Respondents||No of Respondents||Percentage|
|50 and above||5||10%|
The above table shows that 4 respondents representing 8 percent of the total sampled population are 20-30 years old while 28 respondents representing 56 percent of the population are 31-40 years of age; 13 respondents representing 26 percent of the total sampled population are 41-50 years of age while 5 respondents representing 10 percent of the population belong to 51 years old and above. However, the age group 31-40 has the highest number of respondents… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of Findings
The rationale of the study which was to examine if rural development can serve as a means for combating rural-urban migration which was exhaustively introduced in chapter one laying emphasis on the background of the study, statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, the significance of the study, research questions, limitation of the study, the definition of terms.
Chapter two which was the review of related literature was introduced and meanings of rural development, urban-rural migration, causes of rural-urban migration, level of rural development in Nigeria, and ways to combat rural-urban migration were comprehensively discussed and in details… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This study has attempted to study rural development as a means of combating rural-urban migration. The results obtained following an investigation during this research revealed that:
- Rural development can serve as a means of combating rural-urban migration.
- Lack of basic infrastructure, poverty, and illiteracy have been identified as the major causes of rural-urban migration… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Consequent upon the findings from the data analysis, this study recommends that the government should encourage the drift of people to rural areas by making available such amenities that would encourage the stay of the migrants. Also, migrants should be encouraged to form themselves into cooperative societies… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Abonyi, N and Nnamani O. (2011) “Development and Food Crisis in Emerging Economy: A Critical Appraisal of Nigeria”. Nigerian Journal of Administrative Science Vol. 9 No. 1 Pgs. 245 – 278.
Afolayan, S. O. (1995). Community Mobilization for Rural Development in Bangladesh: Lessons for Nigeria. Ilorin: Agricultural and Rural Management Training Institute, ARMTI.
Agyemang I and Abu S. R (2013) Rural-Urban Migration and Rural Community Development: A case of Kpongu Community of Upper West Region of Ghana. African Journal of History and Culture. Vol. 5(4), pp. 72-77
Aliy, A. (1999). Short and Medium Poverty Reduction Strategies in Nigeria. Abuja: Family Economic Advancement Programme.
Aslm, M. (1981).Rural Development in India. Journal of Bangladesh Academy for Rural Development, Comilla, X (1/2)
Ele, C. (2006) Evangelization through Rural Development. Nsukka: Great AP Publishers Ltd. Enugu State (2009) Medium Term Implementation Plan–Enugu State Vision 2020–(2010–2013). Enugu State Government Publication.
Laah, D.E., Abba, M., Ishaya, D.S., and Gana J.N (2013). The Mirage Of Rural Development In Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences and Public Policy, Volume 5, Number 2, 2013. (Rural Development)(Rural Development)
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