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This chapter focuses on the literary works of experts in the field of child abuse and its impact on secondary school students' educational performance. The following subheadings will be used to organise and treat the chapter:

The Definition of Child Abuse

The Origins of Child Abuse

The Impact of Child Abuse on Academic Performance.

Factors Influencing the Outcomes of Child Abuse and Neglect

Theoretical Perspectives on Child Abuse and Academic Performance.

Methods for Preventing Child Abuse.

2.1 The Definition of Child Abuse

Child abuse is a composite word made up of the words child and abuse. In English, a child is defined as a baby, a child who is extremely young, a son or a daughter, or offspring; and abuse simply indicates an incorrect treatment or the use of an angry or violent attack in word or deed on anyone.

Psychologically, the term child refers to a man's developmental condition that includes the neonate (the first few months after birth), early children (1-2 years), pre-school ages (first to five years), and middle childhood (Pre-adolescence).

Childhood can be divided chronologically as a teenager. A father or mother might refer to his or her offspring as a child, regardless of age, as is typically used by parents.

In the current setting, a child is defined as someone between the ages of one and twenty who is still largely dependent on a carer for survival and maintenance. It is because of this dependency that the youngster is vulnerable to maltreatment from whoever the child is depending on.

2.2 Factors Contributing to Child Abuse and Human Issues

Child abusers come from all financial levels, geographic areas, family situations, religious backgrounds, ethnic groups, and residential environments. Some of the reasons are described further below.

Adults who have been mistreated as children

One element appears to be linked to child maltreatment. However, no cause and effect sequence has been proven. According to Kline (2007), there is a definite link between child abuse and neglect. This study discovered that 27% of children who were judged to be abused or neglected were eventually enrolled in special education programmes.

When asked why these parents do it, the answer was simple. It was discovered that child abuse is a psychological issue. According to the authors of one study, as infants and children, all of the (abusing) parents were deprived of basic mother care from the start of their lives (Spinetta and Rigle, 2002).

This phrase could be understood to suggest that all abused children will grow up to be abusive adults, and that anyone who was not abused as a child will not mistreat his or her own children, because violence is very likely to be rejected. When there is family conflict, a child learns violence as a solution and an outcome.

The deep emotion that accompanies witnessing violence by a child enhances the learning process. Family conflicts' violent teachings are likely to be forgotten.

According to Leonard, J.R. (2004), an abused youngster growing up in a violent family may not have learned another way to deal with conflict violence. His or her reporting of behaviour may lack facilitative abilities such as negative thinking, exchange of services, or humour.

Such a person may believe that using physical force is the only way to cope with a youngster. According to Fontana (2008), parents who abuse their children have a difficult time forming trust, which is linked to the parent's isolation from family and other social groups.

In a number of research, isolation has been used to investigate child abuse. Modern and Wrech Smith (2003) discovered that child abuse has occurred in families when there is no ongoing interaction outside the house.

Gelles and Straus discovered a greater probability of violent in a family that has lived or in a neighbourhood for less than three years. Those who did not attend or belong to any community organisation had a considerably greater rate of child maltreatment than those who did attend or belong to at least one organisation (Straus, 2009).

The problem of child maltreatment is worsened by guilt on the side of both parents and children. Even in the pre-school years, few children will seek assistance from the outside. Any parent, even an abusive one, may be adored by the child. And it goes without saying that very few parents, even those who believe in physical punishment, would knowingly feel justified in causing major harm to their children.

Younes (2007) noted in his article on “child – abuse and neglect incidence” that physical abuse of children by their parents is a maladjustment that may be detected and addressed.

Broken Family

According to Anykam (2004), a research of divorced spouses found a significant incidence of violent family behaviour. The pattern of violence is cynical; abused or neglected children lack trust and are unable to develop meaningful relationships with their spouses when they marry.They frequently lack a positive sense of self-esteem and competence. In other words, they have the helplessness syndrome.

Such people often want children, but when they become parents, they have no knowledge of proper child-rearing practises or normal growth and development. As a result, parents may scold a six-month-old infant who is sobbing because it is his sole way of conveying his wants.

Battering frequently occurs as a result of a parent's anger and frustration, and the parents interpret the child's behaviour as accusatory and rejecting. Children have been ill-treated by adults throughout history, but it is only recently that public concern over the matter has grown.

To assess the significance of recent , it is necessary to situate the special reaction to children's problems in a broader historical context. From the turn of the century to the 1970s, concern for children was primarily focused on the promotion of society from children and the control of delinquent youth.

The primary concern with youngsters has been crime prevention and anti-social behaviour.

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