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THE EFFECT OF UTILIZING AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING MATHEMATICS USING SELECTED SCHOOLS IN OSHODI/LSOLO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

THE EFFECT OF UTILIZING AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING AND LEARNING MATHEMATICS USING SELECTED SCHOOLS IN OSHODI/LSOLO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

ABSTRACT

The study aimed at examining the effects of mathematics audio and visuals on the learning and teaching of mathematics as well the effects of these audio and visuals on the academic performance of some secondary school students in some selected secondary schools in Isolo Local Government Area of Lagos state.

A well designed and simple questionnaire was distributed to mathematics teachers in these selected schools to accurately evaluate the effect of audio and visuals on the application of learning mathematics in secondary schools in Nigeria.

Concerning the methodology used for the study, the researcher adopted the survey research design with a sample size of twenty (20) teachers and eighty (80) students selected using a stratified sampling technique. Both primary and secondary data were used for the study… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

AUDIOVISUAL

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

The influence of audiovisual materials in promoting student’s academic achievement and teaching and learning in mathematics cannot be overemphasized. The teaching of geometry in Nigerian junior secondary schools needs to be properly handled.

The materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at the primary and secondary school levels of our education system is incontrovertibly a paramount important issue in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the students. Audiovisual are materials which assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to students.

They are also used to transmit information, ideas, and notes to learners (Ijaduola, 2007). Audiovisual materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorders, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as a supplement to the normal processes of instruction.

Geometry is a subject in mathematics that focuses on the study of shapes, sizes, relative configurations, and spatial properties. Derived from the Greek word meaning “earth measurement,” geometry is one of the oldest sciences.

It was first formally organized by the Greek mathematician Euclid around 300 BC when he arranged 465 geometric propositions into 13 books, titled ‘Elements’. This, however, was not the first-time geometry had been utilized. As a matter of fact, there exists evidence to believe that geometry dates all the way back to 3,000 BC in ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Statement of the Problem

Previous studies reviewed show that the failure rate in mathematics at junior certificate examinations is high. This could be attributed to a number of factors; one of such factor is the lack or total absence of audiovisual materials. In teaching and learning, audiovisual materials play a key role in concretizing learning.

Audiovisual materials make learning meaningful and help to improve students’ academic achievement. However, these advantages of audiovisual materials have not reflected in the education system because of the dearth of these audio-visual materials in our schools. Hence, the need for alternative audio-visual materials called improvisation… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Research Objectives

The main aim of this study is to investigate the influence of audiovisual materials in the teaching and learning of geometry in junior secondary schools in Lagos State. Specifically, the study sought the following;

  1. i) To investigate the impact of audiovisual teaching materials on the performance of students in junior secondary schools… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

AUDIOVISUAL

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Introduction

This chapter reviewed materials and other works related to the use of audiovisual aids and they were presented in the chapter under the following sub-headings:-

  1. Theoretical framework
  2. General audio and visuals
  3. The concept of audio-visual aids
  4. Types of audio-visual instructional aids
  5. The importance of audio-visual aids in teaching-learning
  6. Academic achievement
  7. Concept of Comprehension
  8. Concept of Demonstration
  9. Concept of Cooperation
  10. Empirical studies.

Theoretical framework

Almost every educational reformer has expressed deep concern over the excessive use of words that carry the shadow of meaning but not the substance. Several educationists have struggled to make education realistic. One of such educationist was Dale, E. (1969) who became the chief exponent of audio-visual aids in teaching. He was the originator of the “cone of experience”.

The diagram presented in his book “audiovisual method in teaching.”All the learning experiences can be utilized for classroom teaching. Edger Dale presented all the learning experiences in his pictorial device “pinnacle form” which he called the “cone of experience” if we group the pinnacle from its base; we find that every aid has been arranged in the order of increasing abstractness or decreasing directness.

It may be stated that the “cone” classifies the audio-visual aids according to their effectiveness in communication which means the aids at the base of the cone as “most effective” and relative effect gradually decreases in the cone. Al the pinnacle of the cone, the direct, purposeful, and verbal experiences is represented. The experiences include in the cone were as follows:-

  1. The direct, purposeful experience that is seen, handled, tasted, felt, touched, and smelt, the experience that is grained through the senses. These experiences are not only direct but are also purposeful. Purposeful means that the experiences are active with a purpose. “An ounce of experience is better than a tone of theory, simply because it is only an experience that any theory has vital and verifiable significance”… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

General Audio and visuals

Audio and visuals are all the objects, things, people and places use to promote the teaching and learning process. The organized combination and utilization of materials facilities equipment and people ease the presentation content for the realization of stated objectives, Ema and Ajayi (2004) state that audio and visuals are all the tools, which can be used by the teacher to provide help and encouragement to learners` learning activities.

In addition, Jocob (1999) stated that audio and visuals are anything and anybody that can be used by the teacher and learners before, during, and after the lesson to facilitate the achievement of objectives. In other words, audio and visuals are devices that facilitate the transmission, understanding, and appreciation of concepts, skills, values, and attitudes… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

  • Categories of instruction materials and resources

Audio and visuals are variedly categorized. For instance, Dubey, and Barth, (1980) grouped them into two, namely:

  1. Reading materials
  2. Non-reading materials

Michaelis (1980) classified then into

  1. Reading material
  2. Audio-visual materials
  3. Community resources

Another categorization provided by Dubey and Barth (1980) has:

  1. Reading materials
  2. Audio-visual material
  3. Community resources
  4. Human Resources… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Concept of Audio-visual aids

Many definitions of audio-visual aids have been made. Most such definitions were made in terms of equipment and materials; and their use in the teaching and learning process. Ofoegbu, (2009) in his illustrations defines audio-visual aids as teaching aids which are of two kinds-materials and verbal. The materials he called the hardware and software used in teaching and these include objects, models, photographs, painting, drawing, diagrams, films among others.

Another definition was made by Talabi, (2004), who sees audio-visual materials as a combination of audio-visual materials which are used in the instructional or learning process to facilitate teaching and learning. According to Abolade, (2004) audio-visual aids are supplementary devices by which teachers, through the utilization of more than one sensory channel is able to clarify, establish, and correlate concepts, interpretations and appreciation.

In his definitions, Nwanna-Nzewunwa, (2003) views audio-visual materials as any device which can be used to make the learning experience more concrete, more realistic, and more dynamic.

Generally, audio-visual materials are those materials which are used by a teacher or an instructor to illustrate the information that is contained in a book in such a way that it will be clearly understood by the students… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Empirical Studies

This research work has reviewed some empirical related studies conducted by different researchers and at different times. One such work was that of Chindo, Abdulrasaq, and Ayinla, (2010) who conducted research on the effect of audio-visual audio and visuals on junior secondary schools students’ performance in Ilorin West local government area of Lagos state.

That research work was similar to this research which was based on the effect of the use of audio-visual aids on student’s academic achievement in Mathematics in junior secondary schools in – oshodi government area, Lagos state.

In research design, Chindo used a pretest. Post-test quasi-experimental design was quite similar to the research design for this work. Chindo also employed a sampled population of junior secondary schools (students who were randomly selected for the research work). It is quite similar to the sampled population put in use for this research… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Introduction

This chapter presents the methodological procedure employed in carrying out this study.

Research Design

The study investigated the effect of audio and visuals on the application of learning mathematics in senior secondary schools in Isolo Local Government Area, Lagos State. Therefore the appropriate design for the study is a combination of quasi-experimental and survey design.

Population

The population the researcher identified for the study comprises the mathematics teachers and students at the Senior Secondary Schools (SSS) Lagos State.

Sampling Procedure

A stratified random sampling technique was employed. A stratified sampling technique was employed in selecting two schools each in Bariga and Yaba Local Government. Among the schools selected, one is all-boys secondary school; one is all-girls secondary school while two are co-educational secondary schools making four schools… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

AUDIOVISUAL

RESEARCH FINDING AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents an analysis of the data collected for the study. Four schools were involved in the study, which includes C.M.S.

Grammar School, Bariga, Federal Science and Technology College, Yaba, Stockbridge Secondary School, Bariga, and Our Lady of Apostles Secondary School, Yaba. All the schools are in Lagos State. Out of the above schools, eighty students (80) and twenty (20) teachers were randomly selected to constitute the study’s sample.

Two relatives’ kinds of questionnaires were prepared (teachers’ and students’ questionnaires) and administered to the teachers and students respectively. The information was obtained on the demographic features of the respondents are presented in percentage tables and subsequently interpreted respectively.

The responses of the respondents to the questions on the questionnaire copies administered to them in conjunction with both chi-square (x2) and t-test statistical tools were used in testing the hypotheses posited for the study.

Each result as gotten from the respective tests of the critical value at 0.05 level of significance. Besides, in the analysis of teachers’ responses, strongly agree and agree were grouped as agree (A) while, strongly disagree and disagree were grouped as disagree (c).

Teachers’ Bio-data Presentation

Table 1: Distribution of Teachers by Qualification

Qualification Frequency %
B.ED 12 60
NCE 8 40
TC II
Total 20 100

Source: Field Survey, 2007

Table one shows that 60% of the teachers that participated in the study had a first degree in education, 40% of them had a Nigerian Certificate in whereas, none of them had a TC II qualification.

Table 2: Distribution of Teachers by Class Taught

Class Taught Frequency %
JSS 9 45
SSS 11 55
Total 20 100

Source: Field Survey, 2007

Table two shows that 45% of the teachers that took part in the study were teaching at Junior Secondary School level whereas the remaining 55% of them were teaching at the Senior Secondary School level… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter discusses the finding of this study in relation to the hypotheses formulated and tested. The conclusions are drawn based on the results.

Summary

The discussions of the findings are based on the variables which formed the basis of the hypotheses tested in chapter four.

The purpose of the study includes:

  • To examine the influence of the use of audio and visuals in the teaching of Mathematics in secondary schools… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

The finding after testing hypothesis one indicates that the use of audio and visuals will significantly influence Mathematics teaching in secondary schools. This result concurs with Ajelabi (2000) where he says that audio and visuals lend support and authenticity to whatever the teacher says.

This enables the learner to confirm or refute the teacher’s assertion. Sharing the above view is Kay (1981) who says that audio and visuals help the teacher to teach more effectively… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Conclusion

As a result of evidence gathered from the analysis of data, interpretation of result and discussion of findings of this study, the following conclusions are reached;

  • The use of appropriate audio and visuals helps teachers to make their lesson clarifying…(Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

Recommendations  

In line with the findings of this study, the researcher recommends the following:

  • Schools should provide enough audio and visuals to enable teachers to clarify their lessons. Adequate infrastructure facilities and conclusive atmosphere are Sine Qua Non for effective learning and retention of what is learned… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

AUDIOVISUAL

REFERENCES

Aina, N.F. (1982) A book on Methodology, Ibadan: Evans Brothers.

Ajelabi, A. (2000), Production and Utilisation of al Media. Lagos: Reltel Communication LTD

Akanbi, K.E. (1988). Product Evaluation of Media in steel (ed) Charles B. Clark Inc. New York

Akande, M.O. (2002). The Theory and Practice of Professional Teaching: Ekanag Publishers.

Akindele, F., and Adegbite, W. (1999). The sociology and    Politics of Mathematics in Nigeria: An Introduction. Ile-Ife: Obafemi Awolowo Press.

Akinlaye, F.A. (1997) Materials, and Resources in Learning Social Studies. Lagos: Pun mark.

Brosnahan (1985) in George Yule “Nature of Language “Cambridge

Brunner, J.S. (1971) Report of Research on Application Of Instructional Aids in Canadian Schools. Source from the Internet at www.opp.com/jnls. (Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)

Ching et al (1989) Advanced Studies in mathematics education. Harcourt Brace and World Inc. (Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)

Chomsky (1965) Reflections on Learning, London: Temple Smith. (Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)

Daramola (2005) Lecture note on teaching (ENG 417), University of Lagos. (Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)(Audiovisual Materials)

(Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

AUDIOVISUAL

(Get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)

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