THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN HIGHER EDUCATION
In this study, attempts have been made to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption and acquaintance rape in College of Education Ekiadolor. The statement of the problem is on the effects of acquaintance rape and its effects on students, in particular and the public general.
The purpose of the research is to find out the extent to which alcohol consumption is a function of acquaintance rape and its effects on tertiary institution students.
For this purpose five hypotheses were formulated and data collected through the use of questionnaire, oral interview, particular conversation and written records (published and unpublished research work on alcohol and rape). Percentages and frequencies were used to analyse the data collected. Consequently the study recommends that the target audience particularly youth should be well sensitized about the dangers inherent as identified in the study.
Animals, no less than man, inherit powerful instinctive drives to preserve their life and liberty, but the pursuit human characteristics. Therefore, man has been in search for drugs to facilitate this pursuit (Britainnical, Vol. 13 1998).
People do not usually drink pure alcohol but a beverage containing alcohol, specifically ethyl alcohol. Alcohol beverages include wines, beers and spirits. Alcohol is a depressant, dulling the cortical functions of memory, learning, judgment, reasoning, comparison and classification (encyclopedia of Psychology, Vol. 1 pp 14). Alcohol has an anesthetic or depressant effect on the central nervous system.
It is a class of drug that act upon the nervous system by depressing or dulling human functions of learning. Ordinarily, the respondents ascertain that small quantity of alcohol in esopectation of reducing feelings of tension, relieving feelings of anxiety and conversely obtaining feelings of gaity and exhilaration. The increasing rate at which alcohol is consumed is poses tragic consequences such as cultism, thuggery, accidents and rape just to mention some.
Rape described the act of forcefully having sex with a woman who is or may not be your wife against her will by threatening her or using violence. The legal definition of rape as stated in Britannica Vol. 16 is “the performance of sexual intercourse by a man other than her husband with a woman against her will by force or fraud”. Acquaintance rape has become more prevalent than ever before, very few woman and girls report these incidences of acquaintance rape, thus a high proportion of rapist escape conviction for a variety of reasons (Abbey 1991).
In acquaintance rape or any other type of rape the victim may experience feelings including; shock, disbelief, denial, guilt shame, fear, anger, rage. She could also experience, headaches, fatigues; severe injuries could be sustained and could result in sexually transmitted diseases like HIV/AIDS. All of the above effect together with effects of alcohol consumption conspire to make alcohol consumption and acquaintance rape social problems that demands immediate attention.
Already government has spent millions of naira in checking its effects on the society. This study will provide for deeper insight into the prevailing contributing factors, experiences and effects of rape.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In favourable circumstances, alcohol will not merely reduce tension and anxiety but suppresses them entirely. The anxiety suppressing action of alcohol is commonly seen in the gradual removal of social inhibitions. Shy people become outgoing or bold; well-behaved people become disorderly, the sexually repressed become amorous, the fearful become brave the quiescent or peaceful become verbally or physically aggressive (Kesel and Walton, 1982).
Other physical behavioural manifestation of mild intoxication are slurred speech, unsteady gait, disturbed sensory perceptions and inability to make fine discriminations. When these occur in a social getting in which allows for sexual activity or is atleast on eventuality rape may probably occur.
While this state can incite rape in males, the females in this condition might not be able to discern an impending rape attempts. Koss and Wisniewski (1987) reported that 80% of the rapes that occurs on campuses are committed by someone whom the victim is acquitted, hence the name acquaintance rape.
Although acquaintance rape has been linked to alcohol consumption on campuses. This relationship has received little attention. Muehlenhand and Linton (1988) for example found t5hat 15% of the college women they surveyed had experienced unwanted sexual intercourse on a date.
Most worrisome is the existence of rape myths which makes people who believe in them insensitive to sexual victimization experienced by others, or even themselves, and the less likely they are to take effective steps to prevent rape. The magnitude and importance of the problems of alcohol consumption and acquaintance rape are insufficiently appreciated.
Its impact facts not only on the victims of alcohol or rape but on a wide circle of family and friends. Its social reverberation affect accidents, sexual assaults and crime rates, school drop out, unemployment etc. it is the serious havoc which acquaintance rape can wreak on the society that quicken ones interest in researching on this issue.
This research therefore, intends to investigate the interrelationship between alcohol consumption and acquaintance rape plus its effects in tertiary institutions and the society at large.
PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to exp-lore the links between acquaintance rape and alcohol consumption on tertiary institution students as well as the effects. This study seeks to examine the causal factors of these two serious problems. In addition this study intends to offer an explanation for the connection between alcohol consumption and acquaintance rape and the magnitude of the problems.
Although rape laws are sex neutral, women victims and male perpetrators were focused on in the present study because women/girls represent virtually 100% of reported rape victims (Muehlemhand and Liton (1988). The study denotes attention to then preconditions that foster acquaintance rape like rape myths.
Aside from this, the study adduce prevention programmes which have been developed from the information gathered through this study to reduce the risk of acquaintance rape for future generations of students in tertiary institutions.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of this study are stated below viz:
1. To explore the links between acquaintance rape and alcohol consumption.
2. To identify the causal factors of acquaintance rape and alcohol consumption.
3. To state the precise role alcohol plays in acquaintance rape
4. To examine the effect of acquaintance rape or survivors.
5. To develop prevention programme and aid to acquaintance rape victims.
1. Acquaintance is more prevalent than previously believed
2. Alcohol use by the perpetrator is frequently associated with acquaintance rape.
3. Alcohol use by the victim is frequently associated with acquaintance rape.
4. Alcohol use impairs cognitive processing and increase feelings of sexual dis-inhibition and arousal.
5. Alcohol consumption frequently occurs in social settings in which sexual activity is a possible and often desired outcomes.
This study examines the effects of alcohol consumption and acquaintance rape in tertiary institutions. This study will provide students with deeper insight into the prevalence, contributing factors, experience and effects of rape. It documents extensively alcohol-related problems among tertiary institution student’s explanations for the affinity between alcohol consumption and acquaintance rape. Armed with the realities of rape and rape myths got through socialization, the female folk will risk less harm to themselves.
The prevention strategies teaches both male and female students in tertiary institutions and of course people outside school environment, how to convey honesty and clearly their sexual intentions and to interpret the intention of their dates. Similarly, it will be of immense value to related research topics and future research.
It is hoped that with this body of knowledge, the government will have better reasons, and be better able to convict the high proportion of rapist who escape conviction for a variety of reasons. It will also give direction to promoting line of future research.
SCOPE OF STUDY
Women victims and male perpetrators are on focus in this study owing to the fact that women make up virtually 100% of reported rape victims. This study focuses on tertiary institution students. They are a high-risk group for alcohol consumption and rape because they are in the same age ranges as the bulk of rape victims and offenders. The victimization rate for women peaks in the 16 to 19 years old age group, and the second highest rate occurs in the 20to 24 years old group.
Koss and Wilsin Dcwski (1987) they add that the victimization rate for those groups are approximately 4 times higher than the mean for all women. Kanin (1990) stated that 45% of all alleged rapist who are arrested are individuals under ages 25. Approximately, one third of all persons of age 18-25 are attending school. This is the age bracket of students in tertiary institutions. Due to the dearth of logistics this study is limited to the college of Education-Ekiadolor.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Euphoriant: A drug that makes you experience a strong feeling of excitement and happiness.
Alcohol Beverages: A hot or cold drink containing alcohol.
Depressant: A drug that makes your body processes slower and makes you feel very relaxed.
Acquaintance rape: Rape by whom the victim knows.
Alcohol: The colouless liquid present in such drinks as beer, wine, brandy, whisky etc.
Rape Myths: Ideas or story that many people believe, but which is not true.
High-risk group: A group of people more at risk to rape in the society.
Marijuana: An illegal drug smoked like cigarette made from dried leaves of the HEMP plant.
Cocain: A drug usually in the form of white powder.
Stranger rape: Rape perpetrated by one whom the victim do not know.
Anger rape: Rape, which is primarily an act of revenge and is used to vent rage contempt.
Power rape: It refers to when a rapist is motivated by desire to exert control in life and dominated over another persons.
Sexual gratification rape: This describes a rape type where rapists are primarily after sexual gratification.
Sadistic rape: This is a type of rape where the rapist expresses aggression as erotic or a turn on.
Rape tauma syndrome: A pattern and set of unpleasant and upsetting physical and mental effects experienced by rape victims.
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