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THE PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN LIVESTOCK (CHICKEN) FEED

THE PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN LIVESTOCK (CHICKEN) FEED

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THE PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN LIVESTOCK (CHICKEN) FEED

ABSTRACT

This aims to determine the prevalence of bacterial injections such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli, which cause health problems in poultry feed. Sample feed was received from New Heaven's commercial mash operation/pellet mill operation and feed from Ogbete's major in Enugu.

The samples were tested for total aerobic bacteria count, total coliform count, and bacterial isolate characterization, while the indole and citrate tests were employed to confirm the presence of Escherichia coli. Salmonella isolates were also confirmed on Mac conkey agar.

VERSION 2.0

In , the term poultry refers to all domesticated birds kept for egg or meat production. Chickens (domestic fowls), Grallus domestics, turkeys, ducks, and geese are among them. This study will mostly focus on chickens, which are the most popular domestic poultry.

Because poultry species are adapted to or may thrive in a variety of conditions, they are widely distributed around the world. As the world's population grows, so does the demand for products, particularly protein food. Rapid multiplying ones are required to supply the need for animal protein and its development.

Poultry has several advantages over other domesticated animals whose production is hampered by a lack of money, extreme temperatures, disease, and a shortage of good during certain seasons.

in chickens, like diseases in other species, can be caused by: a. pathogenic organisms such as bacteria and viruses, protozoa, worms, and some arthropods
b. Nutritional insufficiency; c. Wound or cannibalism

The following diseases are commonly connected with fowls in the area.

1. The illness of the new castle

2. Respiratory disorders that are chronic

3. Typhoid in birds

Coccidiosis is a type of parasitic infection.

5. avian influenza

The incidence of salmonella and Escherida coli simply refers to the amount to which enteric organisms (Escherichia coli) that are naturally present in the environment and cause sickness, as well as pathogenic organisms (salmonella), affect poultry diets. Hill, D.H., and O.S. Davis (1962). Shoening and colleagues 1942).

Diseases are defined as any aberrant condition of the body's tissue, and the cells that make up the various tissues have distinct duties to complete. Salmonella is characterised by Pekzar et al (1977) as a disease of chick fowl and swimming birds caused by some species of Salnaonells.

Pullorum illness was described by Anon (1963) as an actute infection disease of body chicks caused by Salnonella pullorum. Infection is the introduction of disease-producing organisms into an animal.

Livestock (poultry) becomes infected when pathogenic organisms enter the vulnerable animal via the following routes. Esmat.omar was born in 1977.

1. Feed and contaminated water feed, as well as water containing infected animal droppings or waste products, will aid in the spread of organisms to new hosts. If the feeding troughs and watering vessels are not separated, the infections spread.

2. Droppings or excretes: These materials are the exit point for various stages of oarganisms to leave the host and find other animal hosts.

3. Close touch – certain diseases are spread through contact. Their agents could be external parasites or airborne organisms, in which case proximity to the superior's birds increases the chances of contracting the organisms.

4. To prevent illness pathogenic organisms from entering the bodies of poultry, attention should be paid to the elements that influence their infections and spread. To begin with, they should have disease-resistant stock, give appropriate shelter, clean range, proper feeding, and practise separating the unwell from the healthy chicken, as well as quarantining new stock.

In the case of poultry, the brooder house should be 30 to 48 metres apart from the aged birds. So that they get enough food and sunlight. They should not be permitted to come into contact with their droppings or excrements because they carry pathogenic pathogens. Cleaning water cans and feed troughs, as well as sanitising the stock, are all vital steps in poultry management to help eliminate organic waste.

1.1.1 JUSTIFICATION

This study was justified by the need and safety of ingesting children (white meat) with low cholesterol but high protein content rather than beef with high cholesterol. Humans and the world as a whole benefit from our poultry farms, which have layers (egg producing chicks) and broilers (heavy chicks) for eating.

Poultry (chicken) is high in protein and amino acids, which are essential for growth. Livestock feeds are designed in a specific ratio for various species and types of poultry. These are also feed additives that can be added to feed to help animals eat more efficiently. To nourish the feed, some component concentration is added.

1.2 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To emphasise the diverse importance of livestock (poultry) to humans and our industry.

2. To assess the prevalence of bacterial infections such as balmonella

and Escherichia coli, which pose a health risk to chickens (Chiken).

3. To isolate and determine the effect of Salmonella species and Escherichia coli.

in livestock (poultry) and feed.

4. Advising poultry producers on how to preserve and manage their farms

Infections and illnesses are fed to the birds.

HYPOTHESIS

Salmonella and Escherichia coli are the most common pathogens detected in livestock (poultry) diets.

Salmonella is the only infection that affects livestock (poultry) diets.

HYP. II0:- Escherichia coli is the sole bacteria that affects livestock (poultry) feeds.)

STATEMENT OF THE

1. Poultry feeds become contaminated during processing due to handling, component mixing, and exposing raw ingredients and finished products to air microorganisms.

2. Poultry (birds) are becoming ill as a result of their use of polluted meals and unpurified water.

3. When healthy and diseased birds are fed from the same feeding trough and water vessels, pathogenic and enteric organisms from infested birds may eventually spread widely.

4. Salmonella and Escherichia coli, as bacterial organisms, affect the essential requirements of the body such as water, carbohydrate, lipids, vitamin, minerals, and protein, so decreasing the nutritious content of the food to acceptable and readily digested levels.

5. Consumption of undercooked and partially cooked chicken infects consumers (humans).

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