How to Write a Final Year project and research thesis in Nigeria
A final year project is an individual work consisting of 10,000 and 20,000 words. It is a scientific investigation that usually uses scientific methods to achieve defined objectives and answer the research questions. Completion of a research project contributes heavily to the attainment of a degree programme.
A typical final year project research format (though this format is different for law research project ) is shown below
A complete final year project research will contain accurate details of all the five chapters accordingly. While some individuals begin with chapter two so as to get their objectives and statement of problems, others begin from chapter one down to five.
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Chapter one Introduction
chapter one of a final year project deals the general introduction of the research project, it gives the description of the problem that would be addressed. As shown in the format above, chapter one comprises of background to the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study, scope of the study, operational definition of terms and organization of the study.
The background of the study provides context to the information being discussed, it include current information, relevant history. The statement of the problem is a concise description of an issue to be addressed or improved upon.
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A good research problem should address an existing gap in knowledge.
The research objectives describe concisely what the research is trying to achieve, it summarizes the accomplishment the researcher hopes to achieve through the research. There is the general objectives and specific objectives.
Research questions is an answerable inquiry into a specific concern or issue. They are questions the research project sets out to answer. It is important to note that the research question and research objectives tallies.
The research hypothesis is a clear, specific and testable proposition or predictive statement about the possible outcome of a scientific research study. In undertaking a research project, only the null hypothesis is required.
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The significance of the study provides details to the reader on how the study will contribute to existing literature, it determines who benefits and how they would benefit from the research findings.
The scope of the study defines clearly the content covered in the research. It can include the year the research covered for time-series data, variables involved, a research carried out using primary data might include brief detail of the study area.
The operational definition of terms comprises of a single sentence definition of words mainly used in the study and how it is used in the study.
The organization of study briefly establishes how each chapter is constructed.
Chapter two Literature review
chapter two of the of final year research project is the literature review which presents the current knowledge including substantial findings as well as theoretical and empirical contributions to a particular topic.
Chapter two comprises of an introduction, conceptual literature, reviews of empirical studies, theoretical review, theoretical framework, gaps in the literature.
The introduction gives brief details of what chapter two contains. It usually in one paragraph. Conceptual literature contains literature coming from books, journalism, and other forms of material, relevant to the study that are non-empirical. It includes the definition of key concepts by various scholars and discussion of key issues related to the study.
Empirical literature review deals with original research (such as scientific experiments, surveys). They are research-based on observation rather than on systematic logic. In constructing the empirical review, it is important to note that the author's name, year the research was carried out, topic of research, source of data, method of data analysis, and findings is required.
Theories are formulated to explain, predict and understand phenomena and in many cases to challenge and extend existing knowledge within the limits of critical bounding assumptions.
The theoretical review helps establish what theories already exist, the relationship between them. Note that the theories reviewed must be related to the project research study.
The theoretical framework is the structure that can hold or support the research study. The most applicable theory is used as the theoretical framework, selected from the theories reviewed.The gap(s) is the missing piece(s) in the research literature that has not yet been explored or is under-explored. It could be due to sample size, research variables, research method, and scope etc.
Chapter three Research methodology:
chapter three of a final year project deals with the research methodology which explains the procedure or techniques used to identify, select, and analyze the variables and/or information about the topic.
For secondary data, chapter three contains details on the types and sources of data, method of estimation, model specification, and evaluation criteria
When primary data is involved, chapter three contains an introduction that gives brief details of chapter three usually in one sentence. The research design is the framework of research methods chosen by the researcher such as survey (descriptive, case-study, etc.).
The population of the study is generally a large collection of individuals or objects that is the main focus of the research. The sampling size is a portion of the entire study population through which statistical inferences for the whole population are made, sampling technique, an instrument for data collection; it is important to decide the tools for data collection because research is carried out in different ways and for different purposes.
Method of data collection; which could be a questionnaire, interview method etc. The validity/reliability of the instrument is an important aspect of selecting a survey instrument. Reliability refers to the extent the instrument yields the same results over multiple trials while validity refers to the extent the instrument measures what it was designed for.
A pilot test should be carried out. Method of data analysis explains how the data would be analyzed such as in frequency and tables and technique for hypothesis testing.
Chapter four Data presentation and analysis:
chapter four of a final year project comprises the introduction, data presentation/analysis, testing of hypothesis, discussion of findings/policy implication of findings. The introduction gives brief details of chapter four usually in one paragraph.
Data presentation/analysis shows how the data are presented and analyzed such that the research questions stated in chapter one are answered. The hypothesis stated in chapter one are tested in chapter four. The methodology employed depends on the nature of the data used and the reason for the analysis. In the final part, findings are discussed and its implication stated.
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Chapter five Summary, conclusions, and recommendations:
chapter five of a final year project comprises of introduction which states in one sentence what chapter five entails, the summary gives brief details of the entire project from chapter one to four.
The conclusion states the major finding after carrying out the research, i.e. what the research uncovered.
Recommendations are suggestion the research has and it is usually based on findings, limitations to the study are shortcomings or influences which the researcher cannot control and thus place restrictions on methodology and conclusions.
Therefore the limitations faced by the study are stated in chapter five after the research is concluded. Suggestions for further studies; other related studies that can be carried out should be stated.
It lists all the sources that have been cited in the research work. It is important that all cited authors are properly referenced. There are different referencing styles, use the one applicable to your school.
they are supplementary material or information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the project. It is helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research. It is the last part of the research project.
After completion of the project from chapter one to five alongside the reference and appendices, an abstract is drafted which contain brief information of the project [topic, objective(s), scope, method of statistical analysis, finding(s), and recommendation(s)]
After all corrections on your final year project; the title page, declaration, certification, dedication, acknowledgment, table of content, list of tables, the abstract is included then proceed to bind.
Writing a Final Year Project is really easy.
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