1.1 THE STUDY’S BACKGROUND
Millions of children worldwide are growing up without one or both parents. Many more are at risk of separation as a result of poverty, disability, and natural disasters and armed conflict. Children without parental care are more vulnerable to discrimination, inadequate care, abuse, and exploitation, and their well-being is frequently under-monitored. Inadequate care environments can harm children’s emotional and social development and expose them to exploitation, sexual abuse, and physical violence (Gadsden, 2003).
The importance of parental care on a child at any given time cannot be overstated. The home is very important and crucial to a child’s future well-being and development. The family is the primary social cell in which the child’s upbringing must begin even before birth, in the cradle. According to V. Hugo, a person’s principles are like letters engraved in the bark of a young tree that grow and enlarge with it, becoming an integral part of it. As a result, the most important aspect of upbringing/education is a good start.
Nobody ever said that raising children was easy. They don’t come with any guidelines or instructions, and there isn’t even a pause button. They do, however, bring with them a critical set of physical and emotional needs that must be met. Failure of parents to meet these specific needs can have far-reaching and long-lasting negative consequences, particularly in terms of academic performance. Epistein (2001).
This is because parents are the children’s first teachers at home. As a child grows from an infant to a toddler and then to a preschooler, he learns to speak, listen, write, and read, which prepares him for academic success. Numerous studies have found that parents have a significant impact on their children’s academic achievement.
According to Gadsden (2003), greater parental involvement in children’s learning at an early age has a positive impact on the child’s school performance, including higher academic performance. According to Harderves (1998), families with successful children exhibit the following characteristics:
1. Establish a daily family routine by providing time and a quiet place for children to study and assigning responsibility for housekeeping chores.
2. Monitor out-of-school activities, such as limiting television viewing, limiting playing time, and monitoring the groups of friends with whom students walk.
3. Encourage children’s development and progress in school by maintaining a warm and supportive home, taking an interest in their academic progress, assisting them with homework, and discussing the importance of a good education and future career with them.
In a three-year longitudinal study, Izzo et al (1999) studied 1205 US children from kindergarten to grade three. Teachers rated four types of involvement: providing all of the child’s material needs; frequency of parent-teacher contact; quality of parent-teacher interaction; participation in educational activities at home; and participation in school activities. These factors, as well as parental care variables, were investigated to see if they had any relationship with primary school students’ academic performance.
1.2 THE PROBLEM’S STATEMENT
In a two-year longitudinal study of 159 young US adolescents (aged 10-12), Dubois et al (1994) discovered that family support and the quality of parental care significantly predicted school adjustment. At-home parental care has clear and consistent effects on pupil performance and adjustment that far outweigh other types of achievement. Children who have caring parents and families to support their learning are more likely to succeed not only in school, but throughout their lives.
In fact, the most accurate predictor of a pupil’s school performance is not income or social status, but the extent to which that pupil’s family is able to create a home environment that encourages learning, express high expectations for their children’s future careers, and become involved in their children’s education both at school and at home. The researcher, on the other hand, wants to look into the impact of parental care on the academic performance of primary school students.
1.3 THE STUDY’S OBJECTIVES
The following are the study’s objectives:
1. To investigate the impact of parental care on primary school students’ academic performance.
2. To investigate the fundamentals of parental care.
3. To identify the factors that can influence primary school students’ academic performance.
1.4 QUESTIONS FOR RESEARCH
1. What effect does parental care have on primary school students’ academic performance?
2. What are the essentials of parental care?
3. What are the factors that can influence primary school students’ academic performance?
HO: Parental care has no effect on primary school students’ academic performance.
Parental care has an effect on primary school students’ academic performance.
The following are the study’s implications:
This study will educate the general public on the importance of good parental care not only to improve the academic performance of the child but also to prepare the child for future endeavors with proper upbringing so that the child can freely interact with the pairs with higher self-esteem.
This research will also serve as a resource base for other scholars and researchers interested in conducting additional research in this field in the future, and if applied, will go so far as to provide new explanations for the topic.
1.7 STUDY SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
This study will cover all of the areas that parents must properly care for in order to properly develop the child physically and emotionally, as the effect of these variables on the pupil’s academic performance will be examined.
Financial constraint- Inadequate funding tends to impede the researcher’s efficiency in locating relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as in the data collection process (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will conduct this study alongside other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
C.V. Izzo, R.P. Weissberg, W.J. Kasprow, and M. Fendrich (1999). American Journal of Community Psychology, 27 (6), 817-839.
Gadsden (2003) examined the relationship between child care, maternal education, and family literacy.
J. Epistein (2001): Partnerships between schools, families, and communities. View from Boulders West.
7 Mapp, K.L (2002): Henderson, A.T. The impact of school, family, and community connections on student achievement; a new body of evidence Southwest educational development in Austin, Texas. HFRD has published the Harvard family research project.