Project Materials






1.1 The Study's Background

Modern educators, philosophers, and researchers have emphasized rational thought and activity in relation to altruism since altruism is a type of rational thought and action. Krebs (1998) defined altruism as a psychological process based on the acknowledgment of an individual's trueness and commitment, as well as their ability to wholeness or togetherness as human beings.

He also stated essential altruistic requirements like as morality, ideals, and reason in desire and behavior. Furthermore, Krebs (1998) demonstrated that while want and motivation are key components in altruism, desire is not the exclusive source of motivation. Other internal variables, aside from desire and drive, stimulate the expectation of other people's enjoyment and well-being.

Furthermore, generosity is a “virtually universal virtue in all human cultures and the main tenant of the majority of the world's significant religious, social reformer, and revolutionary leader movements” (Senapati, 2016). Genuine altruism is a proven fact. According to Krueger (2013), this essential characteristic of assisting those who are in need is described in a variety of ways, including socioemotional conduct, moral commitment, and helping out. People who are motivated to “go beyond of” in response to the needs of others enrich social groupings, community groups, organizations, universities, and households.

Thus, human altruism is characterised by a high level of prosociality, and physiological kinship appears to be essential for altruistic behavior (Batson, 1991). Altruistic behavior is characterized as willingly supporting others, motivated primarily by concern for their needs and wellbeing, and is typically motivated by empathy and internalized ideals and norms connected with serving others (Bierhoff, 1991).

Similarly, altruism among diverse social groupings is characterized by prosocial behavior displayed within the society through togetherness, teamwork, sharing, and delivering support. The school system can make a major and active contribution to boosting prosocial abilities and motivation by implementing structured prosocial educational programs. Integrated school activities should be encouraged in order to create leadership and, as a result, increase altruism among children.


1.2 Problem Description

Altruism has been described in numerous ways by psychologists and other scientists from diverse fields of study, but they all agree that it is an aspect of human nature. Individual egotism, as well as a “pure” compassionate willingness to aid another person regardless of personal gain, can motivate altruistic conduct (Batson, 1991). Positive attitudes and dispositions such as optimism, helpful attitude, compassion, and confidence, which are attributes of altruism, have a large influence on the social well-being, interaction, and sense of belonging of the individuals involved, according to recent research.

As a result, it becomes ideal to instill such behavior in children. This is required since the activities of adolescents are marked by covert and overt animosity, as well as intentional aggression toward others (Oliner, 2002). According to Sarak (2020), adolescents in Nigerian engage in anti-social behavior that causes physical, psychological, or emotional harm to others.

According to him, among the various behavioral abnormalities of secondary school pupils include assaulting others, being nasty to others, and so on. In other words, students care little or nothing about anyone save their peers (to some certain extent).

As teenagers progress to adulthood, the dangers of this behavioral imbalance become increasingly apparent. Notably, in order to truly make the world a better place, every individual must reach out to the interests and needs of others, with or without personal gain. In light of the foregoing, it is important to instill in youngsters the importance of altruism and to train them to become better altruists through the teaching of altruistic behavior among teenagers.

1.3 The Study's Objective

The overarching goal of this study is to assess the teaching of altruistic conduct to adolescent students. The study's specific goal is

Determine the essential components of altruism.
Determine whether teaching charity will improve teenagers' socializing skills.
Determine whether teaching compassion will have a favorable influence on students' inhumane behavior.
Determine whether altruism activities are carried out in Nigerian secondary schools.
1.4 Research Issue

The following questions will lead the research:

What are the elements of altruistic behavior?
Will teaching compassion improve adolescents' sociability skills?
Will teaching compassion have a good impact on students' inhumane behavior?
Are there altruism exercises in Nigerian secondary schools?

1.5 The Study's Importance

The study's findings will be extremely useful to stakeholders in Nigeria's secondary schools. According to the study, they would recognize the need to construct altruism activities in secondary schools in order to alter students' inhumane dispositions throughout time.

Additionally, it will be used as a literature review by succeeding scholars. This means that other students who intend to conduct research in this field will be able to access this study as available literature for critical assessment. Invariably, the study's findings add significantly to the body of scholarly information about teaching altruistic behavior to adolescent students.

1.6 The Study's Scope

In general, the research focuses on teaching altruistic conduct to adolescent students. The study will also look into defining the fundamental components of altruism, assessing whether teaching altruism would improve teenagers' socialization skills, and whether teaching altruism will have a good influence on students' cruel behavior. The investigation will also determine whether altruism activities are carried out in Nigerian secondary schools. As a result, the study would be conducted in a few selected secondary schools in Asaba, .

1.7. The Study's Limitations

The researcher encountered some difficulties while conducting this study, including time limits, budget constraints, language barriers, and the respondents' attitudes.

There was also the issue of researcher bias. In this case, the researcher had some biases that may have been reflected in the method the data was obtained, the sort of people questioned or sampled, and how the data gathered was afterwards evaluated. The possibility of all of this influencing the data and conclusions cannot be overstated.

1.8 Terms Definition

Altruism is the principle or practice of caring for or devoting oneself to the wellbeing of others. The investigator used the “Altruism scale” devised by S. N. Rai and Sanwat Singh and customized by them to assess the level of altruism in the current investigation. The higher the score on the scale, the greater the amount of altruism.

Adolescence: Adolescents are those who are between the ages of 12 and 18. The researcher will include pupils in classes nine and ten who are of this age level and are deemed adolescent in the current study.

Altruism Exercise: In the current study, altruism exercise is operationally defined as the workouts or activities that motivate an adolescent's altruistic behavior. The current study's altruism exercise is an altruistic journey.



C.D. Batson (1991). The Altruism Question: A SocialPsychological Approach. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.

Bierhoff, Mr. (1991). Data from accident study provide evidence for the altruistic personality.

Krebs, D. (1978). Altruism's biological and psychological challenges

J. I. Krueger (2013). The formation of trust and altruism in childhood.

S. P. Oliner (2002). folks performing extraordinary deeds of heroism and generosity. Altruism and altruistic love: Science, philosophy, and religion in discussion, edited by S. G. Post, L. G. Underwood, J. P. Schloss, and W. B. Hurlbut.

Sarak, B. (2020). Mindful Attention Awareness of Dibrugarh District Higher Secondary School Students

N. Senapati (2016). Teaching Adolescent Students Altruistic Behavior



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