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This paper provides an overview of the major underlying causes of secondary school dropout and their effects in some selected secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria. The topic is directly related to two benchmarks that many of Georgia’s country collaboratives are addressing: “increase the percentage of students who graduate from school on time” and “reduce the percentage of students absent 10 days or more from school annually.”

The hope is that by examining relevant data for their local community and developing a comprehensive strategy that produces results, a collaborative will be able to examine the underlying root causes of dropout in secondary schools and its key component.

Before the arrival of the Europeans and their western education in Nigeria, we had a formal or traditional educational system that Nigerians or indigenous people used to educate their own children. This was known as occupational education.

The goal of this type of education was to raise children in such a way that they would understand the society into which they were born, acquire knowledge, skills, understand attitudes, and appreciate culture. However, general education still has areas of specialization such as palm fruit, packing hunting, carpentering, and so on.

As a result of missionary activities in Nigeria, a formal education system was established with the goal of training people to read, understand, and interpret the Bible. The goal was also to produce people who would be of service to the members of the trinity of colonialism, church, and state. Many citizens attended schools because of the white-collar jobs that formal education provided; however, some of them did not complete their educational careers due to economic, social, and physical handicaps that will be thoroughly addressed in subsequent chapters.

Every year, a large number of students drop out of school due to factors such as illness, teacher attitude, and peer group influence. Those who dropped out of school are a blight on society. They can be found wandering the streets or looking for opportunities to steal. However, many of these dropouts become involved in criminal activity and end up in prison or, in extreme cases, executed for armed robbery.

The Georgia Academy defines a school dropout as a situation in which a student leaves school for one reason or another without graduating, posing a risk to himself or herself. Georgia Academy believes that every child, including those living in rural areas, has the right to attend school.

Many countries have abandoned their previous selective school systems, in which students were separated early on into academic and vocational tracks, in favor of more comprehensive schools since the mid-twentieth century. The impact of these reforms has been difficult to assess, and their implications for students’ educational and labor-market outcomes are still being debated.

This study examines the effects of Nigeria’s introduction of a more comprehensive secondary school system in the 1990s. The reform narrowed the gap between academic and vocational educational tracks by extending and significantly increasing the academic content of all vocational tracks.

The impact of this policy change was determined by utilizing a six-year pilot program that preceded the actual reform in some municipalities. The findings indicate that extending the vocational tracks increased the likelihood of dropping out among low-performing students. One of the main reasons for the policy change was to allow all secondary school graduates to pursue a university degree.

There is no effect on university enrollment or graduation, according to my findings. However, there are some indications that taking the longer and more academic vocational track may have resulted in higher earnings in the long run. Georgia considers the following to be some of the causes of secondary school dropouts.

Students with disabilities are also more likely to drop out. According to the national transition study, up to 36.4 percent of disabled youth drop out before completing a diploma or certificate course.

Occupation aspiration – young people’s perceptions of the economic opportunities available to them influence their decision to drop out or stay in school. Dropouts frequently have lower occupational goals than their peers. These are the reasons given by teenagers for dropping out of school. According to a National Longitudinal Study conducted by the United States Department of Education Statistics, three (3) key reasons why students dropped out are summarized below.

a. Educational-related

I. Did not enjoy school.

ii. Was unable to get along with teachers

iii. Was there a fall school?

b. Employment-related

I couldn’t work and go to school at the same time.

ii. I needed to get a job.

iii. Found a job

c. Personal relationships

I was expecting a child.

ii. Acquired parental responsibility

iii. gotten married

In recent years, the effects of school dropout have fueled the demand for a highly skilled labor force, transforming a secondary school education into a minimum requirement for entry into the labor market.

Because completion of secondary school has become a basic prerequisite for many entry-level jobs, as well as secondary education, the economic consequences of failing to complete secondary school are severe.



It is necessary to identify the possible causes and effects of school dropout in Ovia North East Local Government Area in order to carry out this study. Among them are the following: –

1. A financial problem may impede education.

2. The loss of parents or a sponsor could jeopardize education.

3. Unhealthy human relationships in school, such as quarrels, hatred, and fighting, can lead to secondary school dropout.

4. A lack of mental ability can lead to a student dropping out of school.

5. Academic factors: According to national research, academic factors are clearly related to dropping out. Students who get poor grades, repeat a grade, or are average in their class are more likely to drop out.

6. Students who are absent for reasons other than illness are more likely to drop out of school.

7. The perception of economic opportunities available to young people in the community also influences their decision to drop out of school.



The goal of this research is to discover the causes and consequences of school dropout in the community.

The researcher is interested in the issues that students in secondary school face that lead to dropout.

The researcher is also interested in the effects of these dropouts on society or locality.

The researcher also wants to know what causes these problems that students face, which lead to their dropping out of secondary school.

The researcher hopes to find a solution to the problem of school dropouts in Edo state’s Ovia North East Local Government Area.



The following research questions were proposed to provide a solution to the stated problem:

1. Do students drop out due to a lack of funds to meet their basic needs?

2. Is it true that students who come from broken homes drop out of school?

3. Do poor student-teacher relationships contribute to school dropout?

4. To what extent does participation in secret cults lead to secondary school dropout?

5. Does race/ethnicity influence secondary school dropout rates?

6. Is early marriage a cause of secondary school dropout?



The significance of this study is that it will assist us in producing the manpower required in our society as well as how to minimize the causes and effects of secondary school dropout. Also, to provide solutions to these problems and to look for ways to eliminate dropout problems in these secondary schools.

This is accomplished by raising awareness and allowing students to be informed at the right time or given the right information, which will go a long way toward reducing or even eliminating dropout in secondary schools.


1. School dropout: A student who, after being admitted to secondary school, is unable to complete their education for one reason or another.

2. Delinquency: Illegal or immoral behavior, particularly by young people.

3. Hooligan: A rough individual who fights and makes noise in the streets.

4. Dissatisfied: Lack of discipline

5. Permissive: The act of allowing

6. Prerequisite: What must occur before something else can occur.

7. Nuisance: A student who causes trouble or problems.

8. Hamper: To make it difficult for someone to do or achieve something.

9. Tracks: To keep track of someone’s progress or development.

10. Prolonged: To remain in one’s educational career for an extended period of time.

11. Discarded: To leave school before completing one’s education career.

12. Disputed: A situation in which there is no friendly relationship between students is referred to as disagreement between the two parties.



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