Project Materials






1.1 The Study's Background

The United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

In December 1948, the Assembly guaranteed the individual a wide range of fundamental freedoms.

Education is a fundamental right that is required for the achievement of all other freedoms.

To realize the right to education, young people must be given the opportunity.


opportunity required for the acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values

allow them to live happy and productive lives as individuals while also fulfilling their social responsibilities

the improvement of people's lives in society

, having recognized the effectiveness of education as a powerful tool for development,

national advancement and development, she modified her educational philosophy and methodology to

march the ideals and challenges of modern society's changing economic and social structure

National Policy on Education, revised in 2004.


As a result, Nigeria made changes in 1982.

secondary educational system to include a diverse curriculum that integrates academic with extracurricular activities

Technical and vocational courses designed to prepare individuals for self-employment (Igwe)



The broad aims and objectives of the National Policy on Education 1981; 2004

Secondary education in the Nigerian educational system prepares students for useful living within the country.

(The area that concerns this is society (self-employment) and preparation for higher education.

The first goal is to study in order to prepare for self-employment.


However, more than two and a half decades after the noble initiative's inception, the majority of

Because of unemployment, many Nigerian youth are idle, and some are involved in various vices. They are correct.

not have the necessary skills to fit into many different types of jobs that are available or to create jobs

(Igwe 2007). It is no longer news that the country's youth unemployment rate has skyrocketed.


up in the sky The government recently admitted that approximately 80% of Nigeria's

Youth unemployment is 10% and underemployment is 10%. And Sam, the Minister of Education

Egwu recently stated that the low quality of graduates is concerning.


The major policy addresses

President Yar'Adua's current priorities revolve around his desire to transform Nigeria into a developed country.

by 2020, it will be one of the top 20 global economies. This vision cannot be realized unless


Empowering youth for job creation and wealth creation According to Adekoya (1999), for the

To be economically empowered, Nigerian youth must be taught the necessary skills.

acquisition, and in order to do so, the curriculum must be effectively implemented. Oli (2000)

believed that in order to ensure a bright future for Nigeria, the youth who are seen as the future

Leaders of the country should be well-versed in the fundamental skills required to drive the .

Curriculum is a vehicle for obtaining education (Offorma 2005).



The secondary school curriculum as it is currently implemented falls far short of the goals of

secondary schooling system (Obanya 2004a). Several authors have mentioned the National

The Education Policy was well-structured and the contents were adequately defined, but

implementation raises concerns (Babafemi 2007; Dike 2009).


According to the information gathered,

Because schools lack basic infrastructure, students' potentials are not properly channeled.

There are insufficient specialist teachers for effective curriculum implementation, and

Where possible, concentrate on the theoretical aspect while ignoring the practical component.

This situation necessitates a critical examination of Nigerian policy implementation.


secondary school curriculum in order to determine the root cause of the problem and any gaps

required for reformation This study is timely and beneficial in providing much needed empirical data.

data that will help the Federal Government of Nigeria develop its curriculum

Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) to assess the level of education

success of the current implementation and be better able to plan for a future implementation

instill fundamental skills in Nigerian youth to ensure socioeconomic empowerment



There are a significant number of students who have completed their secondary education but do not wish to continue their education.

Continued higher education is a conundrum. This is due to their lack of resources.

necessary skills for self-sufficiency The education obtained at the end of secondary school

appears insufficient to prepare school leavers to be competent and self-sufficient, and thus cannot contribute

to national development If Nigerian society is not to be plagued by a generation of unemployed youth,

who are unable to increase the country's economic productivity, a long-term solution is preferred.

provided. As a result, this study was created to fill that void.


1.3 Study Objectives

The investigation's overarching goal was to assess how the curriculum was implemented in

Nigerian secondary schools in order to determine the root cause of the problem as well as the solution

underlying factors that may account for disparities in curriculum implementation, if any

Specifically, the goals were to:


1. assess the relevance of the Nigeria secondary education curriculum in terms of

the goals, content, and method in meeting the Nigeria secondary educational philosophy


2. Determine the type of teaching method used in the implementation of the curriculum in Nigeria.

secondary education

3. Determine the number of skill-based subjects taught in secondary schools in Nigeria.

4. Evaluate the infrastructure available in Nigerian secondary schools.

5. Determine the availability of specialized teachers in Nigerian secondary schools.

6. Identify practical (entrepreneurial) skills that students have learned in school that they can apply.

develop self-employment

7. Determine students' entrepreneurial capability, i.e. the products and services they have.

successfully manufactured/marketed

8. Determine the impact of school location on curriculum implementation mode.

9. Determine whether the type of school has an effect on the mode of curriculum implementation.


1.4 of Research

This study is significant in a variety of ways. Most importantly, it will raise awareness among policymakers.

educational administrators and curriculum planners on the importance of planning for effective

Curriculum implementation in secondary schools in Nigeria This will go a long way toward reducing

the rate of unemployment among secondary school graduates, resulting in them being well adjusted

individuals who will increase the country's economic productivity Furthermore, the study's findings will

As inspectors from the Federal and State Ministries of Finance, they contribute to policy formulation and implementation.

Education will raise awareness of what to look for during an inspection. On a broader level, African

The study will benefit countries because its findings and recommendations will provide pointers.

a point of reference Above all, the Federal and State Ministries of Education, as well as the Nigerian Ministry of Education

The findings of this study will be found by the Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).

particularly useful in the current government effort to implement the new 9-year

Curriculum for Basic Education


1.5 Research Issues

1. How appropriate is the current secondary education curriculum in Nigeria in terms of the

goals, content, and method in meeting Nigerian secondary education philosophy


2. What teaching methods are used in Nigeria to implement the curriculum?

secondary education?

3. How many skill-based subjects are taught in secondary schools in Nigeria?

4. What kind of infrastructure is available in Nigerian secondary schools?


5. What is the percentage of specialist teachers in Nigerian secondary schools?

6. What practical (entrepreneurial) skills did students learn in school that they can apply?

create your own business?

7. What products and services have students independently created and marketed?

8. How does the location of a school affect the mode of curriculum implementation?

9. How does the type of school affect the mode of curriculum implementation?


1.6 Field of Study

Nigeria is a large country with many geographical variations. There are six geopolitical zones in the world.

Nigeria is divided into several states. Three of the six are required to provide national coverage.

North Central, South East, and South West geopolitical zones were purposefully chosen for the study.

South and west. Each zone had one state chosen at random. There are a total of twelve secondary schools.

Schools, both public and private, were distributed across the three states/zones. This was the case.

considered adequate and representative enough to make a preliminary generalization


1.7 Operational Terminology and Variables

In this study, critical means to point out flaws constructively.

Hornby (2000) defines appraisal as “an assessment of the value or quality of something.” In this case,

It refers to the evaluation of how the Nigerian secondary school curriculum is implemented.

Hornby (2000) defines mode as “the way and manner in which something is done.” In this research,

The definition of Hornby is used. i.e. the manner in which the Nigerian secondary school curriculum is structured



The Oxford Advanced Learners' Dictionary defines implementation as “putting a plan into action.”

already planned out Obanya (2004) defined curriculum implementation as “day-to-day activities.”

which school administration and classroom teachers undertake in pursuit of the goal of

any particular curriculum It refers to the processes involved in translating an educational plan in this study.

into action in order to effect change in the learner as they gain the desired experiences, skills, and knowledge

and knowledge aimed at allowing the learner to function effectively in society In this case,

In this regard, implementation is regarded as both a means and an end in itself.

Obanya (2004a) defines curriculum as “the entire package of what is to be taught.”

taught or discovered He describes it as a translation of national educational materials.



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