FACTORS affecting THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The goal of this study was to look into the barriers to sports development in secondary schools in Ibadan, Oyo State, with a focus on Sports Personnel, Government Policy on Sports, Sports Funding, Sports Facilities and Equipment, and Sports Programs. The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. Six research questions were developed in response to the specific objectives, each with one hypothesis to guide the study.
The study's sample included 162 respondents who worked as principals, physical education teachers, and game prefects in all of the state government-owned secondary schools in Ibadan, Oyo state. For data collection, a researcher-created instrument titled Constraints to Development of Sports Questionnaire (CODESP) with a reliability coefficient of 0.87 was used.
Data analysis using percentages and chi-square statistics revealed that the major constraints to sports development in Ibadan city are a lack of opportunities for conferences, workshops, and seminars, as well as a lack of regular in-service training for sports personnel. Lack of adequate motivation and incentives in the form of scholarships, training grants, awards, and so on to outstanding athletes/officials, inadequate funding of school sports programs,
and lack of financial support from philanthropic individuals, organizations, and agencies, lack of facilities and equipment, inadequate facilities and equipment, and poor maintenance of available facilities Inadequate school sports facilities, equipment, and supplies, poor school sports program organization and implementation, and a lack of funding to carry out the outlined school sports program
The findings also revealed that there is no statistically significant difference in the constraints to sports development based on principals, game masters/mistresses, and game prefects. It was therefore recommended that qualified personnel, an effective sports development policy, standard facilities, adequate funding, and an effective school sports program be provided for the effective development of sports.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Sports are extremely popular all over the world due to the variety of functions they serve. According to Onifade (2001), sports as a social institution teaches and reinforces societal beliefs, norms, and values, assisting athletes in socializing into major cultural and social behavior patterns in various societies. According to Bucher and Krotee (2002), sports help with character development, discipline, economy, ideology, patriotism, education, mental development, human communication, physical fitness, and health.
Sports competitions, seminars, conferences, and various types of meetings allow individuals from various countries to exchange ideas and knowledge, which would be extremely beneficial in educating the citizens of their respective countries.
According to Morakinyo (2002), sports as a social phenomenon have evolved from their humble beginnings as an entertainment and recreation pastime to become a visible and prominent business phenomenon that cannot be ignored in any nation's social, political, and economic environment.
Many great nations and societies around the world have recognized that participation in sports is the key to the healthy development of their citizens and have used it to develop their youth, achieving success that science, religion, and politics have not.
Sporting activities have permeated Nigerian society, as they have many other societies around the world, as well as all aspects of societal life such as politics and religion. Awosika (2003) described sports as a symbol that has become a unifying factor in Nigeria, and sees it as an essential ingredient for nation building that cuts across all barriers—ethnic, religious, or social—and has served as a medium for youth development.
Sports, according to Cowell and Schwehn (1995), are any particular play, game, or mode of amusement, as well as other similar activities. Sports, according to Hornby (2001), are “outdoor or indoor games, competitions, or activities governed by rules and requiring bodily effort or skill.”
Sports, according to Onifade (2003), are an institutionalized competitive activity involving vigorous physical exertion or the use of relatively complex physical skill by individuals. In the context of this study, sports are defined as low and high organization games and plays within the secondary school setting. These games and plays may or may not be competitive, but they may increase student participation.
The relevance and importance of sports to national development has made sports development a sine qua non for achieving sports goals in society. The federal government
Sports development is defined in the Republic of Nigeria Sports Development Policy (2009) as the process of continuous improvement of the sport structure, institution, and programs in order to create a societal condition conducive to physical fitness for all and effective functioning and self-actualization.
Collins (1995) defined sports development as the process of creating effective opportunities, processes, systems, and structures to enable and encourage people from all or specific groups and areas to participate in sport for recreation or to improve their performance to whatever level they desire. Sheitima (2005) claimed that development must involve a movement from the old to the new and that this must be progressive when explaining the concept of sports development.
In other words, sports development is the process of inventing new and better ways to do things in sports. Sports development is defined in the context of this study as the provision of standard facilities and equipment, qualified personnel, adequate funding, and an effective school sports policy that can accommodate the needs, interests, and aspirations of the participants.
Sports development in Nigeria is divided into five distinct components, according to the Federal Republic of Nigeria Sports Development Policy (1989): international sports, indigenous sports, stadium management, sports federations, and institutional sports.
International sports are born from the fact that sports frequently cross international borders. Masteralexis, Barr, and Hums (2005) defined international sports as having an impact on more than one nation, noting that it is extremely difficult to name sports that are unaffected by international influences. On that note, it is critical that sports development in Nigeria be geared toward meeting international standards.
Indigenous sports are traditional sports and games that have been practiced in Nigeria for centuries, long before colonialism and western education. Traditional sports and games were primarily for leisure and recreation, with some reflecting the cultural heritage and religious background of Nigerians in general.
Akinemi (2008). Ayo (Seed game), Langa (Hopping game), Kokawa (Traditional wrestling), Aarin (African billiards game), and Dambe are some examples of indigenous sports in Nigeria (Traditional boxing). Indigenous sports encourage indigenous people to be more physically active and to participate in sports at all levels.
It works to increase opportunities for indigenous people to learn the skills required to organize, deliver, and manage community-based sport, as well as to ensure that talented indigenous athletes have access to the support they require to achieve their sporting goals even in the absence of properly constructed sports facilities.
Stadiums are built to accommodate large crowds of people who want to be entertained at a sporting or entertainment event. Stadium management as a component of sports development entails financing new stadiums or renovating old ones, retaining stadium revenue, and planning fully integrated security programs.
Sports Federations are the organizations that govern each country's specific sport. Nigerian sports federations include, among others, the Nigerian Football Federation (NFF), the Athletic Federation of Nigeria (AFN), and the Traditional Sports Federation of Nigeria (TSFN).
These organizations are in charge of approving and sanctioning national competitions open to all athletes. They establish national policies and the eligibility requirements for participation in their respective sports. Sports federations are also in charge of the training, development, and selection of teams for various competitions in various institutions.
School sports are referred to as institutional sports in this context (Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Institutions). This study focuses on secondary school sports because of the role they play in the early identification of sports talents and overall sports development.
Sports development in Nigeria has undergone numerous transformations since the colonial, pre-independence, and independence eras. Prior to the colonial incursion, dancing, acrobatic displays, and wrestling played an important role in Nigerian ceremonies (Ikulayo, 1994).
Modern competitive sports were primarily introduced to Nigeria by British Christian missionaries. Sports were organized recreationally in schools before becoming competitive as part of the British Empire Day celebrations. In 1910, school competitions began in Ibadan, western Nigeria, for the Rowden shield, which was presented by Mr. E.G. Rowden, the former Director of Education in Nigeria's Southern Province.
The first inter-school sports meeting in the Eastern provinces was organized in 1919 for the peace challenge shield competition, which was held on 11 November 1918 to commemorate the signing of the armistice, which ended the First World War. Selwyn Grier, the Western Province's Director of Education, donated the Grier shield in 1933, which was first competed for by colleges, namely Kings College, Lagos, Government College, Ibadan, St. Andrews College, Oyo, and Baptist College, Ogbomoso.
In an effort to strengthen ties between Northern and Southern Nigeria, the British established the Hussey shield competition in 1933. The competition was named after the National Director of Education, E. R. J. Hussey. 2002 (Uti and Ojeme). Several constraints have hampered the fortunes of this and many other competitions, as well as sports development in Nigeria in general.
According to Hornby (2001), a constraint is something that limits or restricts. According to Quirk (2003), constraint is something that limits one's freedom to do what one wants. Constraints to sports development in the context of this study refer to factors such as a lack of qualified sports personnel, adequate and suitable facilities and equipment, and others that limit the development of sports in secondary schools in Ibadan, Oyo state.
According to available records on the development of sports in Nigeria, following Nigeria's historic independence in 1960, the government began taking initiatives such as the establishment of the Nigeria School Sports Federation in 1976 to emphasize the importance of sports in nation building.
Abeku (2000). An important tool for achieving the above goal would have been to emphasize the implementation of the regular school sport system and its physical education program at all levels of education (primary, secondary and tertiary). School sports are an important and inseparable stage in the pursuit of long-term development goals for sports, athletes, national and international sports organizations. Vencateswarlu (Vencateswarlu, 2000).
Secondary schools in Nigeria are made up of students who are predominantly in their early adolescent years between the ages of 10 and 16 years. Musa (1999) observed that the secondary school age bracket is critical for the acquisition and mastery of sports skills.
Because students are usually in their formative years, this is a unique and fascinating period in human development. As a result, secondary school sports are viewed as a promising environment for encouraging adolescents to begin and maintain a physically active lifestyle, as well as to acquire and develop high-level skills for major games and sports.
Secondary school sports include competitions in football, athletics, and a few other popular sports. This is due to the philanthropists' goal of always donating cups or shields to boys or girls schools or individual sports and schools where houses are named after them. The Hussey Shield and Grier Cup competitions are examples of such competitions; these are inter-scholastic competitions held annually for secondary schools.
Both competitions began in 1933. The former was organized for all Nigerian secondary schools, while the latter was organized for secondary schools in the Western provinces and Lagos. In addition, the Morocco-Clarke cricket competition was organized for all Nigerian secondary schools. (1986, Umedum, Okafor, and Azubike). These interschool competitions produced some of Nigeria's best national athletes.
Even after independence, the competitions continued, but the search for a more unifying factor for a segregated nation like Nigeria quickly found these competitions insufficient. In order to promote greater growth and development in sports in Nigeria, the Nigerian School Sports Federation (NSSF) was proposed and established in 1976 to control and organize all school sports in the country (Uti and Ojeme 2002).
The first NSSF sports meet was held the same year, and they have been held annually since then. These gatherings not only aided in the promotion of national unity among Nigerian citizens, but also in the development of good sportsmanship among athletes at the grassroots level and the identification of sports talents in secondary schools. Ladani (1990), FRN (2000)
However, there may be some variables that can have an impact on the development of sports in secondary schools in general, and in Ibadan, Oyo state in particular. One of these variables is the availability of qualified personnel. Administration of any organization, according to Morakinyo and Aluko (2010), is a function that requires personal/professional preparation on the part of the personnel.
Sport is a technical field that requires adequate preparation for those who intend to compete at any level. As a result, when selecting personnel for secondary school sports programs, certain principles must be considered, such as qualification, personality, interest, and experience. The administration of secondary school sports programs is primarily the responsibility of physical education teachers, who usually serve as game masters or mistresses.
These physical education teachers play critical roles in the growth of sports in secondary schools. According to Sonmez (1996), a teacher is the solid foundation that helps new generations in any country keep up with changing economic, political, and socio-cultural lives, which may include sports programs in secondary schools.
Policy formulation is critical to the efficient administration of any sports organization. Government policies in Nigeria usually have an impact on sports development. This is due to the lack of appropriate policies in place to serve as a general plan or guide for how sports organizations will operate and how their activities will be carried out.
Many government policies concerning sports development have not been fully implemented. This, of course, has an impact on sports development because policies are developed from mission statements, which, if properly implemented, would serve as the foundation for establishing all aspects of operational procedures in sports.
Funding is another factor that can influence the development of sports in secondary schools. Adequate funding is required to ensure the meaningful development of sports in secondary schools. The sources of funds, sourcing for funds, and management of funds are all variables under funding that affect secondary school sports development. The current study will take them all into account.
According to Bucher, Koening, and Barnhard (1970), no physical education or sport can be carried out effectively without adequate facilities and equipment. It goes without saying that ideal facilities and equipment, as well as a good educational program, are necessary for the successful development of sports in secondary school.
However, sports facilities and equipment in Nigerian secondary schools are in disrepair, and in many cases, do not exist. Okosun (2010) This is, of course, a major impediment to the development of sports. This study will also look into whether or not the provision and maintenance of sports facilities and equipment in secondary schools is a constraint.
Despite significant efforts, such as the establishment of the NSSF to advance the development of secondary school sports in Nigeria, and recognizing the enormous human and material resource potentials that abound in Nigeria for its grass roots sports development through secondary school sports, it appears that secondary schools in Nigeria are still lagging in the area of sports development. Credible sports meets, for example, are rarely organized to achieve the desired goal of such competitions. Secondary schools in Ibadan City are not immune to the downward trend in sports.
The current study included principals, physical education teachers, and game prefects from various secondary schools. They are the people who are directly involved in the administration and management of sports in their schools. In their monitory and supervisory roles of sports in their schools, principals are usually confronted with certain constraints to sports development, such as those associated with funding, facilities, and equipment, and so on.
The administration of sports programme in the secondary school is majorly the responsibility of the physical education teachers. They typically serve as game masters and game mistresses in their respective schools, and as a result, they play important roles in the development of sports. Nji (2010). The preceding statement justifies their inclusion in the current study. This also applies to game prefects, who, as student athletes, do not have the opportunity to participate in sports due to certain constraints to sports development.
Several researchers and authors in Physical Education, such as Morankinyo and Aluko (2010), Sonmez (1996), Bucher, Koening, and Barnard (1970), have outlined some factors such as quality of sports personnel, government policy, sport funding, sport facilities and equipment, and sport programs to be involved in poor secondary schools for sports development. In light of the foregoing, this study attempts to investigate concretely the constraints that impede the development of sports in secondary schools in Ibadan, Oyo state.
Statement of the Issue
The Report of the Vision 2020 National Technical Working Group on Sports Development (2009) recognized the shortcomings in the conduct and organization of sports in Nigeria, particularly in Nigerian schools, and recommended, among other things, statutory provisions to improve sports development in schools and communities.
The Nigerian sports structure is such that secondary school provides the majority of sporting opportunities for her citizens and is critical for the early identification of talented athletes.
According to Onifade (1999), this opportunity for organized sports at the secondary school level is most logical, given that many Nigerians appear to end their formal education at the secondary school level. It would thus make sense to have a strong secondary school sports structure in place in order to easily identify early talented athletes.
This could explain why the Nigeria School Sports Federation (NSSF) was established in 1976 to promote the growth and development of sports in Nigerian secondary schools, primarily for grass-roots sports development and mobilization for the discovery of talented athletes and effective coverage of the scope of sports development. Ladani (1990); FRN (2000)
Unfortunately, the NSSF's achievement of this laudable goal remains questionable in Nigeria, particularly in secondary schools such as those in Ibadan. According to available records at the Ibadan city Sports office (Post Primary School Management Board of Ibadan city, 2011), there are hardly any organized sports competitions among secondary schools in the zone, and personal observation and experience have shown that there is a low level of participation by secondary school students in sporting competition, and Ibadan city does not feature prominently at state and national sports competition.
As a result, this situation is cause for concern. Many physical education scholars (Morakinyo, 1999; Onifade, 1999) have speculated on some factors that may be involved in the observed downward trend of sports development in Nigerian secondary schools.
The veracity of the claim about the previously speculated factors constituting constraints to sports development in secondary schools in Ibadan city has yet to be determined. The purpose of this research is to see if the identified constraints have an impact on sports development in secondary schools in Ibadan.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The goal of this research is to look into the barriers to sports development in secondary schools in Ibadan.
The study specifically seeks to identify the constraints associated with:
Sports personnel for secondary school sports development in the Ibadan Education Zone
Government policy on sports development in secondary schools in Ibadan.
Sports funding for secondary school sports development in Ibadan
Sporting facilities and equipment for secondary schools in Ibadan.
Sports programs for secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria.
Sports development in secondary schools in Ibadan city based on socioeconomic status
The following research questions will be posed based on the specific objectives of the study.
What are the constraints associated with sport personnel for the development of sport in Ibadan secondary schools?
What are the constraints associated with government policy on sports development in Ibadan?
What are the constraints associated with sport funding for secondary school sports development in Ibadan?
What are the constraints associated with the provision and availability of sport facilities and equipment for secondary school sports development in Ibadan?
What are the constraints associated with sports development programs in secondary schools in Ibadan?
What are the status-related constraints to the development of sports in secondary schools in Ibadan?
One null hypothesis was proposed and tested at the.05 level of significance to further guide this study.
There is no significant difference in the constraints to sports development in secondary schools in Ibadan city based on socioeconomic status.
THE STUDY'S IMPORTANCE
The significance of this study is based on the theory of constraints, which will be used to anchor it. This theory emphasizes that every organization or system has one or more key constraints that limit the system's ability to meet its objectives.
To achieve the system's goals, the constraint must be identified and removed or managed. According to this theory, the development of sports in secondary schools is bound to be constrained. As a result, the data generated on these constraints will serve as the foundation for the development of a package for the government, sports administrators, and athletes to eliminate or reduce the constraints.
The findings from the constraints associated with sports personnel will enable school administrators and sport ministries to recognize the need for secondary school physical education teachers (game masters/mistresses) to be trained and retrained to deal with the changing trend in sports.
The findings regarding the constraints associated with government policy will highlight the significance of appropriate policies. This will allow other policymakers to not only develop policies, but also ensure that they are effectively implemented, resulting in a significant impact on the development of sports.
The study will generate data on the constraints associated with sports funding. This information will be useful to secondary school sport administrators because it will allow them to identify various sources of funding and the importance of proper fund management for sports development.
Data on the constraints associated with the adequacy and availability of facilities and equipment will also be generated. This will allow school sports administrators and athletes to better utilize available facilities and equipment in the school, as well as the need for improvisation of facilities and equipment that are not available.
The results of the constraints associated with sports programs will enable game masters/mistresses to be better equipped with knowledge of the various sports programs in secondary school and to harness them well for the development of sports.
Finally, it is expected that Ibadan, which has many secondary schools, will be adequately exposed to the constraints to sports development, with the goal of overcoming them and thus enhancing the image of sports in secondary schools throughout the zone.
The Study's Scope
This study was restricted to the city of Ibadan. The investigation was limited to the principals, physical education teachers, and game prefects of Ibadan's state government secondary schools. This study was also delimited to sports personnel, sports facilities and equipment, funding, government policy and sports programmes for the development of sports.
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FACTORS AFFECTING THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF SPORTS IN NIGERIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS