THE STRATEGIES AND TEACHING METHODS USED TO IMPROVE THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF FINANCIAL ACCOUNTING STUDENTS IN A SELECTED SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
The primary focus in the education sector is how teaching methods influence student performance. This study looked at techniques and teaching methods for improving academic performance of financial accounting students in Nigerian public secondary schools (A-level), using Ado Ekiti LGA in Ekiti as a case study. Three specific goals led the research:
Identifying teaching methods used in Financial Accounting in public secondary school, assessing students’ perceptions of the appropriateness of teaching methods used in Financial Accounting in public secondary school, and determining the level of relationship between teaching methods and students’ performance in Ado Ekiti LGA, Ekiti.
The study used a descriptive research design using a qualitative and quantitative approach. An in-depth interview and questionnaire were used to survey 78 teachers, 129 pupils, and 9 inspectors. SPSS was used to analyze qualitative data descriptively, whereas theme analysis was employed to examine qualitative data.
Teachers should understand the importance and impact of different teaching methods, and regular training/workshops on teaching methods should be conducted. The study advised against using traditional tactics such as lectures. The report also proposed additional areas for further research, such as conducting the same study in other LGAs before generalization, and conducting comparable research in private schools to learn about teaching conditions.
1.1 The Study’s Background
Teaching methods are the means via which the teacher seeks to transfer the desired learning or experience to students (Ndirangu, 2007). The teacher’s selection of a particular method of teaching is determined by a number of factors, including the content to be taught, the objectives that the teacher hopes to achieve, the availability of teaching and learning resources, and the teacher’s ability and willingness to improvise if conventional teaching aids are not available, evaluation and follow-up activities, and individual learner differences (Ndirangu, 2007).
The methods employed in teaching differ from country to country, based on the knowledge or skills being taught, as well as the student’s aptitude and enthusiasm. Various studies on teaching methods have been undertaken, for example, Asikhia (2010) discovered that teacher qualification and students’ environmental circumstances do not influence students’ bad academic performance, but teachers’ ways of teaching do.
Furthermore, the medium of instruction dictates the technique of instruction; for example, where English is used, the manner of instruction must be more interactive rather than passive (Pillar and Skilling, 2005).
It also argued that classroom teachers must learn more about effective ways for teaching English learners as soon as possible (Thompson, 2004). The most prevalent teaching approaches, particularly in developing countries, are teacher-centered (Guloba, Wokodola, and Bategeka, 2010), and are seen as somewhat ineffectual in the transmission of knowledge.
Other countries no longer employ these tactics. Problem-solving learning is becoming more popular in educational institutions as a technique to solve the shortcomings of traditional teaching methods, which do not inspire students to participate in the learning process (Teo and Wong, 2000). However, there has recently been a push in the education industry to adopt a learner-centered paradigm shift (Ndirangu, 2007), while other schools of thought advocate participatory teaching approaches (Sajjad, 2011).
Despite the various teaching methods advocated in the literature, there is no universally acknowledged method. The debate remains as to which of these instructional methods contributes to the failure or success of students’ performance, particularly in underdeveloped countries such as Nigeria, where the causes of low secondary school performance are not well known.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE Problem
Students’ performance in Nigerian secondary schools has been low, with one reason identified being the type of learning-teaching methods used. In Nigerian education, particularly in community (ward) secondary schools, the majority of students failed or did not perform well in summative examination results (Laddunuri 2012). According to Marikinyo (2003), the decline in academic achievement can be ascribed to teachers’ failure to apply the verbal reinforcement approach.
Several studies on the effects of secondary school teaching methods on student performance have been undertaken in many regions of the world, including the United States (Haas 2002), Pakistan (Sajjad 2011), Nigeria (Barneka 2012), Asikhia 2010), Uganda (Guloba, Wokadala, and Bategeka, 2010), and Kenya (Njoroge et al., 2021). These studies found that the teaching strategies used by teachers have an effect on student performance.
Most research in Nigeria focused on factors influencing student performance and policy decisions rather than how teaching practices effect student performance (Laddunuri 2012), (Kkairuki, 2009), and (Kat ram, 2007). Mruma (2013) conducted another study on teacher motivation in secondary schools.
None of these studies directly investigated the effect of instructional strategies on academic achievement of financial accounting students. This study bridges the gap by investigating the effects of teaching styles on student performance in Nigerian educational institutions at public secondary schools in Ado Ekiti LGA-Ekiti, Nigeria.
1.4 The Study’s Objectives
1.4.1 Overarching Goal
The study’s overarching goal is to investigate the effect of teaching methods on academic performance of financial accounting students in Nigerian education at a public secondary school in Ado Ekiti LGA-Ekiti, Nigeria.
1.4.2 Objectives Specific
The following were the precise aims that led this study:
To identify the financial accounting teaching methods used in public secondary schools in Ado Ekiti LGA, Ekiti.
To analyze students’ perceptions of the adequacy of teaching methods utilized in teaching Financial Accounting in Ado Ekiti -LGA, Ekiti public secondary schools.
To assess the impact of instructional methods on student performance in public secondary schools in Ado Ekiti LGA, Ekiti.
1.4.3 Research Issues
The study provided answers to the following questions:
What approaches are utilized to teach Financial Accounting at public secondary school?
What are students’ perspectives on the suitability of teaching methods used to teach Financial Accounting in Ado Ekiti LGA public secondary schools?
To what extent do teaching approaches influence student achievement in Ado Ekiti LGA public secondary schools?
1.5 Importance of the Research
The study is worthy of scholarly investigation for the following reasons:
First, the study was supposed to disclose the impact of teaching methods on secondary school students’ performance and contribute to the body of knowledge. Second, the study aims to lay the groundwork for future researchers interested in the effects of teaching approaches on student performance in Financial Accounting in secondary schools.
Third, the study findings are predicted to be useful to policymakers, particularly the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, in developing policies that would considerably support equitable resource distribution in public institutions in order to achieve better results.
Fourth, the findings are likely to aid secondary school instructors in Ado Ekiti LGA by providing recommendations for the best teaching approaches to apply in Financial Accounting. Finally, the findings of this study are expected to contribute to the body of knowledge on teaching methods and serve as a foundation for future research.
1.6 The Scope and Limitations
The study focused on the teaching methods utilized and their impact on student performance in Ado Ekiti LGA public secondary schools. Students enrolled in Financial Accounting for at least one year were the target audience. Science teachers and school inspectors are two other groups. Because there are so many different teaching methods, the study only focused on seven of them: citation, brainstorming, discussion, demonstration, lecture, presentation, and seminar.
1.7 Definitions of Important Terms
Teaching methods are defined as a method of carrying out actual classroom instruction (Ndirangu 2007). The term “teaching method” refers to the various methods in which a learning activity is managed in order to facilitate the learning process (Kimweri 2004).
Participatory methods are those that allow students to actively participate in the learning process, either individually or in groups (Musuko 2010). The teacher-centered approach of teaching is a communication process in which there is little or no room for active participation of learners (Kimweri 2004).
The degree to which individuals achieve job or organizational goals with effectiveness and efficiency is referred to as performance. (Utuoh & Mowo, 2000)
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