Project Materials







1.1 Background of the research

When supported by the instructor, communication in the classroom may be a crucial component of every student’s learning, demanding the need to cultivate in students the ability to discuss, evaluate, and analyze their own and other students’ work. This not only helps them learn faster, but it also encourages critical thinking and cooperative learning (Kanl, & Emir 2013).

In the twenty-first century, several developed and developing countries are questioning their traditional educational philosophies and programs for the education of thinking, problem-solving, evaluator, decision-maker, responsible, creative, up-to-date individuals who fit this age of information and technology, where the lecturer is the transmitter and the student is the receiver. programs, lecture materials, education strategies, and statistically determined education output are all studied in terms of cultural reproduction and social order maintenance in the traditional sense (Tanner and Tanner, ).

Notably, traditional education has been chastised for ignoring student life, limiting student participation, and defining a student’s task based on school books and course outline (Dewey, 1997), necessitating the need for progressive education, which necessitates individuals who solve problems, argue, question, change, and lead rather than accumulating information.

This criterion emphasizes the significance of the problem-based learning (PBL) method, which allows students to work in groups on a topic-specific scenario. The basic purpose of an educational program, according to Gagne (1959), is to teach students how to handle problems in both their academic disciplines and their personal life.

This is important because problem-solving abilities let an individual actively adapt to their circumstances; it is also required for people to become inquisitive and problem-solving individuals (Marzano, 1989). As a result, those with these credentials should be able to think more critically. A person’s thinking is guided by problem resolution (Kalayc, 2001).

Problem solving, according to Gagne (1985), stimulates the most complex cognitive processes and enables for the simultaneous application of multiple critical abilities such as learning by doing, developing cause-and-effect links, and analyzing the relationships between concepts and occurrences. As Dewey foresaw, progressive strategies such as problem-based learning (PBL) have become critical at this juncture because they stimulate students to conduct study, discover, and apply their creativity (Delisle, 1997).

The modern need for problem solving, discussion, questioning, changing, and leading individuals who apply information rather than collecting it has highlighted PBL’s significance. PBL significantly improves individuals’ abilities in all of these areas (Tatar and Oktay, 2011; Peterson and Treagust, 1998). Several studies (Klnç, ; Harland, 2003; Mayer, 2002) suggest that PBL has an impact on students’ development of these skills.

1.2 Definition of the problem

As classroom instructions should be produced in ways that empower learners with problem-solving skills, it is clear that the teaching and learning process has become more varied and engaging, with the possibility for greater personal involvement from students. While Nigerian schools have a long history, the educational environment has shifted from teacher-centered to learner-centered, necessitating the adoption of a problem-based learning style.

Problem-Based directs students to conduct research, learn, discuss, select the best option among many solutions, and apply what they have learned in real-life scenarios; in short, it is an approach that teaches students research, teamwork, and observation from multiple perspectives in real-life scenarios (Deveci, 2002; Kaptan and Korkmaz, 2002).

According to PBL, learning takes place as a result of cognitive and social interaction in a problem-oriented media. According to this premise, PBL is ded as a constructivist educational paradigm that involves the teaching of general principles that can be applied to analogous situations as well as information that may be used to future difficulties (Norman and Schmidt, 2000; Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996).

Independent studies, on the other hand, usually concentrate on a specific application or procedure in order to determine the impact of PBL on achievement when compared to traditional education. However, few studies have looked at the influence of PBL on academic attainment in non-private secondary schools.

Because there was a current study in this field that needed to be done, the researcher felt inspired to investigate this topic. Based on this premise, the study focused on the Problem Based Learning technique and its impact on student academic progress in Rivers State private secondary schools.

1.3 Purpose of the research

The overarching goal of this research is to investigate the Problem Based Learning technique and its impact on student academic progress in private secondary schools in Rivers State. Specifically, the research

To find out if the Problem Based Learning approach improves students’ critical thinking skills.
To determine whether or not the Problem Based Learning strategy may increase students’ cognitive research skills and social interaction during classroom instruction.
To see if the Problem Based Learning approach can provide students with the problem-solving skills they will need in the future.
To identify some problems hindering teachers’ successful implementation of the Problem Based Learning approach in the classroom.
1.4 Hypo of Research

H01: The Problem Based Learning approach has no substantial impact on students’ academic achievement.

H02: The Problem Based Learning technique has little effect on improving students’ cognitive research skills or social interaction.

1.5 Importance of the research

This study investigates the impact of Problem Based Learning on student achievement in a private school. This remark is important for pupils since it will help some students appreciate and accept this discovery learning technique.

The study’s findings will be valuable to tutors since they will design better ways to use the Problem Based Learning approach, which results in successful learning. The study’s findings will also be used by academia and researchers as a reference material to aid them in investigating similar themes. Finally, the study will add experimentally to the corpus of knowledge and identify gaps for future research.

1.6 The scope of the research

This research focuses on the Problem Based Learning strategy and its impact on student academic progress in private secondary schools. The study will look into whether the Problem Based Learning approach improves students’ critical thinking skills. The study is to determine whether the Problem Based Learning technique may increase students’ cognitive research skills and social interaction during classroom instruction.

It will determine whether the Problem Based Learning approach can provide students with the problem-solving skills they will need in the future, as well as identify certain problems preventing instructors’ successful use of the Problem Based Learning approach during classroom instruction. The study is limited to selected private schools in the Rivers State metropolis of Port Harcourt.

1.7 The study’s limitations

The researchers encountered minor obstacles when conducting the study, as with any human endeavor. The significant constraint was the scarcity of literature on the subject due to the nature of the discourse, so the researcher incurred more financial expenses and spent more time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information and collecting data, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited sample size.

Furthermore, the researcher will do this investigation alongside other academic activities. Furthermore, the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the study instrument, so the results cannot be generalized to other populations. Despite the constraints encountered during the research, all elements were minimized in order to provide the best results and make the research effective.

1.8 Term definitions:

Problem-Based Learning: Problem-based learning uses complicated, real-world challenges as the subject matter of the classroom, encouraging students to develop problem-solving abilities and acquire concepts rather than simply memorize facts.

Learning outcomes are statements that explain the knowledge or abilities that students should have at the end of a specific assignment, class, course, or subject.

Academic Achievement: Academic achievement refers to performance results that demonstrate how far a person has progressed toward specified goals that were the focus of activities in instructional settings, such as school, college, and university.


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J. T. Ajai, B. I. Imoko, and E. I. O’kwu (2013). A comparison of the learning efficacy of problem-based learning (PBL) versus traditional algebra teaching methods. 4(1), pp. 131-136 in Journal of and Practice.

A. H. Dehkordi and M. S. Heydarmejad (2008). The effect of problem-based learning and lecturing on Iranian nursing students’ conduct and attitudes. 224-226 in Danish Medical Bulletin, 55(4).

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Kanl, E., and S. Emir (2013). The impact of problem-based learning on the success and creativity levels of talented and typical students. Electronic Journal of Science and Mathematics , 7(2), 18-45, Necatibey Faculty of

A. B. Masek (2012). The impact of problem-based learning on electrical engineering students’ knowledge acquisition, critical thinking, and intrinsic motivation (Unpublished doctoral ). Malaysian University Tun Hussein Onn

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