AN evaluation OF COMPUTER UTILIZATION IN RECORD MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY SYSTEM (A CASE study OF UNIVERSITY OF EDO-EKITI IN EKITI state)
This research was carried out to find the computer utilization on record management in Nigerian university system with the reference to thirty secretaries working in University of Edo-Ekiti in Ekiti state. Research questions guiding the study were as follow: (1) what impact does the computer has on record keeping in terms of reliability? (2) What impact does the computer has on record keeping in terms speed? (3) What impact does the computer has on record keeping In terms of retrievals? (4) What impact does computer has on effectiveness on record keeping? Structure questionnaire was design and administer the secretaries. Simple mean was used to analyze the data and the results revealed that the findings, it was concluded that the computer is currently the most reliable tools for record keeping. Effective record keeping has positive impact on productivity. Following the drawing of conclusion, recommendation was offered for improvement of computer services in University of Edo-Ekiti in Ekiti state.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITTLE PAGE i
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- INTRODUCTION 1
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1-2
- statement OF THE PROBLEM 2
- RESEARCH QUESTION 2
- THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 2
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 3
- LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 3
- SCOPE/DELIMITATION 3
- DEFINITION OF TERMS 3
2.0 INTRODUCTION 4
2.1 DEFINITION OF RECORD MANAGEMENT 4-5
2.2 PRACTICING RECORDS MANAGEMENT 5-7
2.3 CURRENT ISSUES IN RECORD MANAGEMENT 8-9
2.4 DATA PROCESSING 9-9
2.5 ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD FILING SYSTEM 9-12
2.6 DEFINITION OF COMPUTER 12
2.7 ROLES OF COMPUTER IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATION 12
2.8 COMPUTER UTILIZATION ON RECORD KEEPING 13
- INTRODUCTION 14
3.1 POPULATION OF THE STUDY 14
3.2 SAMPLE 14
3.3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT 14
3.4 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION 14
3.5 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS 15
3.6 DECISION RULE 15
- PRESENTATION 16
4.1 ANALYSIS OF RESPONDTO THE RESEARCH QUESTION 16-18
- SUMMARY CONCLSION AND RECOMMENDATION 19
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDING AND DISCUSSION 19
5.2 CONCLUSION. 20
5.3 RECOMMENDATION 20-21
5.4 SUGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES 21
RESEARCH QUESTION 24
1.0 Background of the Study
Staff and students in some universities in Nigeria are sometimes discouraged, disturbed and disappointed as a result of delay in getting needed information, inconsistency, redundancy and inaccuracy of data, lack of sufficient storage facility to cater for proper record of both staff and students, inability of the various universities to cope with huge amount of data that are being produced annually.
Some of the reasons for the afore-mentioned problems could be the method that is used to collect, collate, process and maintain the data other factors could be the protocol in getting the required information, economic, political, human and among others. However, to address the above problems, the exam and record units of all universities in Nigeria should be computerized.
Ebijuwa, A.S (2004) defines computer as the tools used for collection, processing, storage transmission and dissemination of information.
Computer is an indispensable medium by which science expresses, formulates and communicates itself. For any university community to develop socially, politically, economically, have easy access to information as and when due, overcome inaccuracy, inconsistency and redundancy of data, insufficient storage infrastructure, to cater for adequate record of both staff and students, cope with large amount of data being produced yearly, the exam and record units should be automated.
Computerized record keeping is oriented toward the use of computer systems and sophisticated programmable machines for the handling of information associated with a process and for the actual control and activation of mechanisms that facilitate or completely accomplish that process with minimal human guidance.
Rowley (1986) gives four reasons for computerization such as:-
- increased workload – computerization can be helpful with a constant decreasing staff.
- need for greater efficiency- computerization may be seen as a means of saving time and money.
iii. need services –computer may offer the opportunity to offer new services in addition to existing services at little extra cost.
- Co-operation and Centralization
The application of computer in record keeping in Nigerian university will make it possible for personnel and students to access the vast record over the internet, cable television and some other type of remote electronic connection. It will make it possible to store and retrieve large amount of records of both staff and students of the university.
The application of computer in the collection, collation, processing, storage, retrieval, use, transmission, dissemination and maintenance of records occupies a pride of place in every facet of life and work experience in Nigerian universities because it is being used to compute the grade point average of students, for on-line registration, examination, and admission processing, keep accurate record of both staff and students, accounting (financial management, purchasing and inventory) physical plant (room assignment, hostel accommodation, allocation of courses to lecturers, planning and maintenance), process the academic transcripts of students, results, certificates, and NYSC call up letters. In addition, the application of computer in record keeping in Nigerian universities will prevent un-authorized personnel to have access to records of both staff and student, enable data to be updated quickly and simply without redesigning and rewriting systems and programs, overcome redundancy, repetitiveness and inconsistency of data; lead to grater efficiency and effectiveness of records keeping, provision of extra services, provide lecturers, students, administrators staff of the university, and the general public with information effectively and efficiency and manage record effectively. These applications of computer were made possible because of its high speed of operation, accuracy, diligence, versatility, high storage capacity, program compatibility and consistence in its mode of operation.
The focus of this work however, is on an evaluation of computer utilization in Record keeping at the university of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State. This is determined by the shortcomings of the manual (traditional) method of record keeping. However, as a result of the “Information Technology age”, the computer has improved the act of record keeping in Nigeria University System because it is being used to compute the grade point average of students, for on-line registration, and admission processing, keep records of both staff and students, process the academic transcripts of students among others. The computer, an invaluable invention of our time, can be used for many applications in all fields of human endeavour. For example, in education sector, the computer is used to appraise and grade the scores of students in examination, for administrative purpose, on-line registration, e-examination, distance learning and keeping of records of personnel and scholars. In addition, the computer is also used in the following sectors : engineering, agriculture, medical, law, banking, transportation, security, police, armed forces, communication among others to carry out various tasks.
A well kept school record is a weapon to build the history of the students and staff. The world is becoming more and more complex such that we cannot but keep accurate records in our University system in Nigeria in the interest of the state, the lecturers as well as of the students.
The university as a socio-technical organization comprises of a technical task, human and the structural subsystem, each having supra system which constitutes that environment. The survival of the university system depends on its capacity to maintain constancy in its process and relationships within and outside the system, and in order to maintain a state of equilibrium in the system, there must be adequate feedback which the university collects information about the quality of her output to the environment.
University education in Nigeria is the education given after post-primary school. Its duration is between four years and seven years. The main functions of university education are teaching, research and community service.
The need to overcome the age-long problems that are peculiar to the collection of academic transcripts, NYSC call up letters, certificate, results, and other vital data as and when due has been of interest to staff and students of the University of Ado- Ekiti State, in Ekiti State. There is a peculiar references to the measure being used to determine the factor which account for the shortcomings of the manual method of record keeping at this university. Some of the factors identified are: loss of information as a result of transporting the files from one location to another; the mode of storage of data, misfiling of forms, time wasted in searching of records because of large files, poor security measure, rise in enrolment of students admission and shortage of manpower. Other factors which might contribute to the shortcomings of the manual method of record keeping, but they are more often than not ignored. Some of these are attitudinal, administrative and organizational, inadequate facilities of computer and its accessories at the University of Ado-Ekiti.
University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State on which this study was centred, has been known to have problems with regards to manual record keeping of both staff and students. For example, Mr. Razaq Ojikutu (an alumni of the University) while expressing his opinion over problems associated with the manual record keeping was unhappy because his attempts to get his academic transcripts on several occasions proved abortive. There is need for all UNADITES (past and present) to re-visit the perennials lapses of the traditional record keeping. The research work will review the manual method of record keeping with a view to finding solutions to the problems; the prospects of the computerized methods among which are :-
It will contribute to improved performance, overcome redundancy, inconsistency and repetitiveness of data, strengthened educational leadership and achievement, to overcome the loosely coupled conditions of the university by providing vital and sufficient information to authorities in the University, in ill –structured and complex decision phenomena.
It will enable students and academic staff to have unlimited access to educational resources which will make them to carry out an in-depth comparative studies and research in all fields of knowledge. The computerized method will lead to the emergence of new approaches, techniques and new styles of processing and disseminating records of both staff and students of the university.
Inspite of the relevant role of computer utilization in record keeping at the University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State, constraints such as inaccessibility of the user to computer, inadequate knowledge and skills-based for computer planning, erratic power supply, low level of computer literacy on the part of the staff and students of the university concerned, attitudinal, administrative and organizational problems, and prohibitive cost of computer and its accessories, dearth of qualified personnel and technicians will continue to inhibit the usefulness of the computer for meaningful record keeping at the University Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State
Statement of the Problem
The problem that characterized the manual method of record keeping have become a source of concern to both staff and students of the University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State. For instance, students who go for their academic transcripts, their results, NYSC call up letters and certificates could not get all these as and when due. If all these shortcomings are not identified and addressed, the University might have failed in the discharge of her responsibilities and services to her citizenry. This study, therefore, focuses on the problems that be-deviled the straditional method of record keeping at the University of Ado- Ekiti, in Ekiti State with a view to ascertain the causes and proper solutions. In addition, this study will also identify the merits and demerits of computer utilization in records keeping.
The following question granted the study:
- What impact does the computer have on record keeping in terms of reliability?
- What impact does the computer have on record keeping in terms of speed?
- What impact does the computer have on record keeping in terms of retrieval?
- What impact does the computer have on effectiveness 0n record keeping?
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research work is:
- To find out and show to the business world the record management features of the computer.
- To determine its impact on the record management.
- To determine its durability and reliability.
Significance of the Study
The study will be off great importance to organization and most especially the secretarial personal to know the computer utilization on record management in Nigerian university system and its effective and efficiency in organization and it will enable organization. Companies to appreciate the computer utilization on record management.
Limitation of the Study
Some constraints faced by the research in the course of these study includes the following.
- Financial constraint
- Time constraint
- support's busy schedule.
- Death of relevant literatures.
However having summarized these challenges, the researcher was confident of the validity of the research work.
Scope / Delimitation
The research study focus.It attention on the computer utilization on record management in University of Edo-Ekiti in Ekiti state.
Definition of Terms
Computer: is an electronic machine that receive instruction data as input, translate the data, process it, and present as out put to the user.
Record management: describe as the deployment of stored and retrieve information for the achievement of the objective with function of providing appropriate information and communication network to all sectors within and outside an organization