SANCTIONS AND THEIR IMPACT ON HUMAN RIGHTS
chapter One: Introduction
1.1. Background of the Study.
Sanctions are unilateral or collective acts made against a state seen to pose a danger to global peace and security. Sanctions have been employed in various forms since time immemorial; however, the first known use of sanctions as a foreign policy tool was in 432 BC, during the reign of Pericles,
when the Athenian government used them against Megara, an occurrence that eventually led to the Peloponnesian War.Since then, sanctions have been utilised at various times to compel states to follow international law and succumb to the demands of sanctioning powers. Particularly after the Cold conflict ended, they appeared to be a preferable alternative than conflict, which is routinely utilised by states.
Traditionally, sanctioning countries3 (and, more broadly, the international community) have preferred to impose comprehensive sanctions that entail limiting economic, cultural, political, and diplomatic ties with states that are perceived to engage in undesirable behaviour.
However, comprehensive sanctions frequently yield outcomes that contradict other norms, such as the protection of vulnerable groups of people and the advancement of fundamental human rights enshrined in the United Nations Charter and human rights treaties.
It is agreed that sanctions and other international actions should serve the goodwill of the people while adhering to international norms and treaties. Sanctions cannot be considered effective as long as they violate international rules and popular will.
The goal of sanctions should be to compel the transgressor state to obey the law and to respect and promote the dignity and rights of the people, either by rewarding it for improvements or punishing the government separately from the people if the government is unwilling or unable to respect international norms and the dignity of the people.