In Nigeria, prisoners are often seen and labeled as “outcasts.” Many believe that being incarcerated immediately labels an individual as a “bad egg” in society. It is erroneous to believe that prisoners have no rights inside the broader community. The significance of this research on human rights violations in Nigerian prisons cannot be overstated, as it seeks to inform the reader that, despite the fact that the Nigerian legal system provides prisoners with certain rights, the vast majority of prisoners are unable to access and make adequate use of those rights, and are in most cases unaware of the existence of such rights. This report demonstrates that in addition to the overcrowding issue in our jails, there are additional abuses occurring. This includes food, clothes, shelter, access to medical services, communication, etc. In Nigeria, convicts have access to these rights as well as those granted by the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999. Prisoners have certain human and civil rights, which are also protected by international agreements and United Nations declarations. the Standard Minimum Rules for the protection of prisoners in particular. Therefore, inmates cannot and should not be subjected to cruel and unusual punishment; they must have full access to due process and equal protection, and they must not be exposed to discrimination. Consequently, this research on human rights violations in Nigerian prisons, with a focus on Niger State, was able to:(i) determine the extent of prisoners’ rights abuses and its effects on their lives in prisons in Niger State; (ii) identify the factors responsible for the abuses; and (iii) examine the steps that must be taken to incisively and succinctly address all problems of prisoners rights abuses. All of this has been accomplished via extensive study and discoveries, and as a result, appropriate suggestions have been made. To attain the ultimate aim of addressing the prevalent infringement of prisoners’ rights, doctrinal and empirical research techniques, including books, journals, and articles, as well as the administration of questionnaires, were used.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The Prison System is a crucial aspect of Criminal Justice Administration since the
Correctional facility where criminals and convicts are housed after completing their sentence.
Police inquiry and legal proceeding. The jail is responsible for the care of
prisoners and other inmates The jail system requires the use of preventative measures.
Escapades, such as constructing tall walls or a chain-link fence, stationing armed guards, and conducting continuous inspections
of cells, offering a pass system for prisoner mobility, continual observation, and
Other preventative measures against escapes, riots, etc.
Government the supervision and administration of prisons. This authority is often exercised by the
legislative act of the National Assembly. The Prisons Act and related legislation
Legislation gives the President of Nigeria authority over management, administration, and security
and the wellbeing of inmates.
According to Section 15(a) of the Prisons Act, the President may waive certain requirements.
to jail administration and structure. Nonetheless, the Nigerian Prisons Act
and Practice are often regarded to be “anti-incarceration.” They often totally remove
inmates’ rights and self-respect. This is contrary to the ordinary jail practice and law.
in the developed countries. For instance, Rule 10 of the Prison Rules of the United Kingdom
1 Dambazau, A.B (2007). Criminology and Criminal Justice, published by Spectrum Books Ltd in Ibadan on page 197.
2 Item No.48 of The Exclusive Legislative List of the Second Schedule to the Constitution; A-G., Abia State v. A.G. – Federation, (2002) 6 NWLR p.763, p.264, at pp.385-386.
S1 1999/78 mandates that every prisoner shall be given as quickly as feasible upon his release.
within twenty-four hours after a person’s incarceration, and in any event within twenty-four hours, written information must be provided on those individuals.
terms of the Prison Rules and other pertinent information will be provided.
includes his income, perks, and the correct way to make requests and lodge complaints.
This is not the case according to Nigerian prison law.
There is a mistaken belief that prisoners have no rights in society as a whole.
population. Their rights may be restricted, yet they possess a substantial amount of human and civic rights.