PERCEIVED INFLUENCE OF SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION ON TEACHERS
This study studied the perceived influence of monitoring of instruction on teachers’ classroom performance in Ijebu-North Education Zone. The study’s sample consisted of all 852 instructors from the 18 public junior and senior secondary schools in the Ijebu-North education Zone.
The sample consisted of 155 female instructors and 100 male teachers from seven secondary schools who were selected by stratified random sampling. The design of the investigation was post-hoc. Questionnaire on the Influence of Instructional Supervision on Classroom Teachers’ Performance served as the instrument for data collection (ISICTPQ).
Three research topics and two null hypotheses have been developed. The mean and standard deviation were used to answer the study questions, and the t-test with a significance level of 0.05 was employed to assess the hypotheses.
Principal findings indicated that interaction between teachers and instructional supervisors has a significant impact on classroom performance. Instructional supervisors have a significant impact on the classroom performance of instructors through the use of instructional resources.
In addition, instructional supervisors’ conferences and seminars have a substantial impact on teachers’ classroom performance. The perspectives of secondary school teachers with more teaching experience and teachers with less teaching experience did not differ significantly in terms of their perceptions of the impact of instructional monitoring on their classroom performance.
Regarding their perceptions of the impact of instructional supervision on their classroom performance, there were no significant differences between male and female teachers. On the basis of the findings, it was suggested that instructional supervisors should always be available and approachable to teachers, that the state government should always provide teachers with the instructional materials suggested by instructional supervisors to aid in class instruction, and that the state ministry of education should adequately fund conferences and seminars for the professional development of teachers.
The study’s background
Instructional supervision is a continuous activity that tries to enhance teaching by supplying teachers with necessary services. Improving education is a multifaceted process that requires the interaction of numerous factors. This reform method is centered on the educators.
Their acceptance of instructional supervision and contact with instructional supervisors are the driving force behind any supervisory accomplishment. The outcomes of the supervision process are highly dependent on how teachers perceive and think about the supervision they are now receiving.
The word “supervision” comes from the Latin phrase “super video,” which means “to oversee” (Adenaike and Adebanjo, 2000:151). Therefore, “Supervision can be viewed as a means of advising, guiding, refreshing, encouraging, stimulating, improving, and supervising certain groups in the hope of persuading individuals to refrain from employing improper procedures when performing certain job functions, while simultaneously emphasizing the significance of good human relations within an organization” (Akilaiya, 2001:251).
Supervision has several meanings and definitions depending on the individual’s needs, goals, and experience. While the school supervisor may view it as an indispensable force for increased productivity, the teacher and/or the taught being supervised may view it as an attempt to harass, threaten, and curse due to the supervisors’ traditional approach to supervision, or as a necessary source of assistance and support for achieving educational goals and objectives. The typical approach to supervision is a fault-finding strategy, in which the supervisor goes to school to criticize and condemn instructors, without perceiving any positive qualities in them (Adenokun, 2000). Educational supervision is the activity or act of ensuring that the policies, principles, and procedures developed for accomplishing educational goals are implemented effectively and efficiently (Akilaiya, 2001). This process involves the application of expert knowledge and expertise to oversee, assess, and collaboratively improve the conditions and methods of doing things related to teaching-learning issues in schools.
The requirement to supervise the instructional process cannot be overstated; hence, Ezeocha (1985) believes that the majority of school activities and all school programs need supervision. Supervision of instruction is the process of enabling teachers to better themselves and their instructional skills so as to increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning (Afianmagbon, 2007). It is a service provided to teachers aimed at regulating the quality of their classroom instruction. The objective of instruction supervision is to identify areas in which work must be improved. Oraemesi (1997:195) is of the opinion that supervision of instruction is crucial for a number of reasons. To him; “the supervisee learns during supervision, and because the supervisor is more knowledgeable, he corrects and counsels the supervisee.” Friendly conversation facilitates this. It also contributes to the professional development of the instructor, as interaction and increased information received through supervision foster professional development.
Education has traditionally been regarded as the remedy to poverty and ignorance as well as the key to unleashing natural resources (Obaji, 2006). Since education is acknowledged to be a change agent, teachers act as the instrument’s primary operators, while students are referred to as the raw materials to be processed in order for the change to materialize over time (Adenaike and Adebanjo, 2000). In an effort to ensure that the value of education is derived at all levels, certain officials are tasked with monitoring the performance of all those who administer education, particularly those in schools, in order to determine or evaluate the degree of attainment of educational goals. These individuals are the supervisors who have been formally designated.
As a result of the high expense of education, stakeholders’ involvement in the educational system is growing. They keep a critical eye on the actions of the teachers and their students to ensure that proper teaching and learning is taking place. Thus, the Parents Teachers Association oversees school activities and is a member of the team directly participating in oversight. In the process of teaching and learning, a number of variables might occasionally interfere with the school’s operational plans and routines in ways that are detrimental to the achievement of its objectives. These elements include the teacher’s personality, his work ethic, motivation, and discipline, as well as the student’s history and environment, all of which will have a favorable or negative impact on the school system and education in general. The majority of the populace contributes to and supports the school as an institution. Therefore, society as a whole and appointed supervisors are able to contribute to the system’s general improvement (Ijaduola, 2000).
The process of supervision is intricate and permeates the entire educational system structure. There appears to be few or no operational areas within the school that do not necessitate supervision, albeit to varying degrees. According to Ajibade (1993), the critical areas of the school system that require oversight are the instructional and discipline areas, where the content, method or mode of delivery, and personalities of both the students and the teachers are evaluated to ensure their suitability for the school system.
According to Ojo (1991:97), the curriculum’s proper execution is the school’s single most essential duty. The execution of the school curriculum should be considered as a crucial stage of transformation that annualizes the best of human energy to boost the production of positive behavioral gains among students.
He argued that the conversion needed human input in the form of interaction between various school workers, especially between the principal (or supervisor) and teachers. This form of contact is frequently motivated by the need to improve the teaching and learning abilities of teachers and pupils. Interaction between supervisors and teachers entails situations in which the teacher views the supervisor as a helper and not as a taskmaster; he freely consults the supervisor when he encounters teaching challenges; he freely expresses his emotions to the supervisor; and the supervisor is always willing to assist the teacher and not to “lord” over him. The availability of instructional materials (such as textbooks and audiovisual aids) contributes significantly to the enhancement of classroom instruction. It simplifies teaching and learning for teachers and students alike. It is the responsibility of instructional supervisors to organize conferences and seminars for teachers that feature discussions about classroom instruction, the presentation of papers on various educational themes, and the asking of questions. This provides teachers with the opportunity to learn new teaching techniques, as well as ask questions and enhance their teaching abilities. Consequently, their performances are enhanced.
Teachers have been accused of split loyalty, a casual attitude, and indiscipline among students and teachers, which reduces the performance of both teachers and pupils. Performance is considered to be the act, method, or manner of executing, performing, or operating. It can also be viewed as an activity that has an impact on people’s life or way of thinking and is thus perceived, observed, or felt. Classroom Performance, on the other hand, is the act, process, or method of carrying out teaching functions in the classroom by the instructor, whether through discipline, imparting instruction, timeliness, etc. Parents are increasingly complaining about their children’s inability to communicate successfully in a language other than their native tongue (English), and their children’s academic achievement has decreased significantly. They now believe that the educational system is rapidly losing its allure and focus, which threatens the achievement of education’s national goals. To restore this, the requirement for instructional monitoring cannot be emphasized enough (Ezeocha, 1985).
Internal supervisors are Heads of schools, their assistants, and the Heads of departments. External supervisors are resource persons and consultants, such as university professors, education researchers, curriculum consultants, and designated officials from the Post Primary School Management Board (PPSMB) (Chiagha, 2008). If there is effective instructional supervision, there is a greater chance of reaching the specified goals; nevertheless, faulty instructional supervision or bad instructional supervision will hinder the successful implementation of the school’s program. Instructional supervision is a significant factor of a school’s quality; it can have a positive or negative impact.
Effective instructional supervision of schools promotes the appropriate functioning and mutual interaction of all individuals and materials involved in the processing of a child and coordinates the activities of all designated school workers. When all resources (human, physical, and material) are in place, the necessity for all interested parties to monitor the school system’s operations would be an effective means of maximizing the school system’s performance. Teaching and learning are the school’s primary activities; consequently, they must be supervised for efficiency and effectiveness.
In accordance with the aforementioned, the State Post Primary School Management Board (SPPSMB), whose duty it is to oversee secondary education in the country, places a significant emphasis on the supervision of instruction in secondary schools. On account of this, the board deemed it more important to provide classroom teachers with extensive support through authorized school administrators. According to the national policy on education, these individuals perform crucial responsibilities in assisting secondary school teachers in achieving the specified goals (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). The achievement of these goals will depend on how teachers view the assistance provided by these officials.
These officially recognized instructional supervisors are trained to supervise classroom instruction, regardless of gender. Despite the fact that some male teachers are gender biased when being overseen by female instructional supervisors, they typically do not embrace the assistance with an open heart. Additionally, some senior teachers believe that their many years of teaching experience are sufficient, and so monitoring should be reserved for younger teachers only (Adenaike and Adebanjo, 2000). According to Nwoke (1997), instructors dislike having younger superiors over them.
A good perception of the influence of supervision of teaching by instructors will result in the achievement of supervision of instruction’s goals, whilst a negative perception will prevent this from occurring. The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of instructors regarding the influence of supervision of instruction on the achievement of the objectives and aims of supervision, which is to enhance classroom instruction. This study will examine teachers’ perceptions of the influence of supervision of instruction as it affects supervisor-teacher contact, the availability of teaching resources proposed by instructional supervisors, and conferences and seminars held by instructional supervisors.
The problem’s description
In an effort to improve the quality of education, instructors should receive increased attention. This emphasis is predicated on the premise that knowing teachers’ perceptions of the influence of instructional supervision on their performance would strengthen our understanding of how to implement instructional supervision (Wu and Short, 1996).
There are appointed instructional supervisors in the Ijebu-North Education zone of Ogun State who are tasked with supervising instruction. For the purpose of enhancing classroom education, the supervisors provide school teachers with instructional resources. The supervisors are always willing to assist the teachers, and their interactions with them are quite polite. In addition, workshops, conferences, and seminars are arranged more frequently, both within the school zone and at the state level, in an effort to find answers to the unanswered issues of instructors.
This study investigated whether teachers perceive the influence of instructional supervision on their class performance to be negative or positive, and the extent of their perception, as these variables will determine the impact and success of instructional supervision in Ijebu-North Education zone schools. It primarily emphasized three characteristics of instructional supervision. These include interaction between teachers and supervisors, availability of instructional resources as ordered by instructional supervisors, and participation in conferences and seminars arranged by instructional supervisors.
The study’s purpose
The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence that teachers consider supervision of instruction to have on their classroom performance.
In particular, this study examined the extent to which:
Teachers believe engagement with instructional supervisors influences their classroom effectiveness.
Teachers’ classroom performance is influenced by instructional supervisors’ recommendations regarding the usage of instructional resources.
The influence of instructional supervisor-organized conferences and seminars on the classroom performance of teachers is perceived.
The study’s significance
Examining the perceptions of instructors regarding the influence of supervision on instruction is important since it will aid in the improvement of the supervision process in schools. This study will benefit teachers, school administrators, the education board, PTAs, and other researchers interested in supervision of instruction.
This study’s findings will assist educators in comprehending and valuing the significance of supervision of instruction for good classroom performance in terms of instruction. It will assist students in understanding that instructional supervisors are there to support them and not to harass them. It will also make students aware that their perceptions of classroom supervision can have a positive or negative effect on their performance in the classroom.
This study will aid school administration in gaining insight into instructors’ perceptions of the impact of instructional supervision on class performance.
And this comprehension will assist students in realizing that the perception of teachers regarding supervision of instruction can make or break school activities. Since classroom education is one of the most important school activities Since the school functions as a factory that transforms students into finished goods, classroom instruction is one of the most significant school activities. In addition, school administration will benefit from knowing the amount to which participation in conferences and seminars enhances teachers’ classroom performance. This will encourage more teacher participation in conferences and seminars.
Supervisors’ work focuses primarily on educators. Planning and conducting effective instructional supervision relies heavily on teachers’ perceptions of the impact of actions taken against them and their responses. This study will enlighten the Authorities of Education (i.e., the Education Board) and instructional supervisors to the fact that the manner in which they supervise has a significant impact on the classroom performance of instructors. And that teachers’ perceptions of their influence have a major impact on classroom instruction. Also, that how people connect with instructors has a significant impact on teachers’ classroom performance, so encouraging them to enhance their interactions with teachers.
This result will also inform Parents Teachers Associations (PTAs) that monitoring has a substantial effect on teachers’ classroom performance. This will need them to supply sufficient educational materials to enhance instructors’ classroom performance. As external supervisors, it will also be eye-opening for them to realize that their supervision style has a significant impact on the classroom performance of teachers. And that the contact between them (as external supervisors) and teachers should be enhanced to achieve the desired outcomes.
Additionally, the data will aid other researchers in comprehending how to supervise training more effectively and in their own study endeavors. In addition, it will aid them in evaluating empirical studies. As it will add to the existing theories and works on educational supervision.
The study’s scope
This study’s scope included all secondary schools within the Ijebu-North Education zone of Ogun State (both Junior and Senior). The focus of the inquiry was the perceived impact of supervision of instruction on the performance of instructors in the classroom. All junior and senior high school instructors participated. This study examined the perceived influence of interaction between instructional supervisors and teachers, availability of teaching materials as suggested by instructional supervisors, and attendance at conferences and seminars organized by instructional supervisors on teachers’ classroom performance.
In order to collect information for the study, the following research questions were posed:
How do teachers see the impact of interaction with instructional supervisors on classroom performance?
What do teachers believe the influence of teaching materials suggested by instructional supervisors to be?
How do educators view the impact of conferences and seminars arranged by instructional supervisors on their classroom performance?
The study was guided by the formulation and testing of the following hypotheses.
There is no significant difference between the mean judgments of instructors with less teaching experience and those with more teaching experience regarding the effect of instructional monitoring on teachers’ classroom performance.
There is no statistically significant difference in the mean judgments of male and female teachers regarding the influence of instructional supervision on classroom performance.
PERCEIVED INFLUENCE OF SUPERVISION OF INSTRUCTION ON TEACHERS