EXAMINATION OF JOLLOF RICE SERVED IN HOTELS FOR PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS
This project work is aimed at examination of jollof rice served in hotels for pathogenic organisms and to find out possible pathogenic organisms in the food. Samples were collected from the hotels and were brought to the laboratory for analysis. The samples were homogenized and serial dilution of the sample was made out using 5ml sterile pipette and test tubes… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Background of the Study
The intention of food safety is to prevent food poisoning (the transmission of disease through food and to maintain the wholesomeness of the food product through all stages of processing until it is finally extern. No one doubts the importance of food in our lives. All active living organisms must have a constant serviced of energy this energy may be supplied by materials a cell or organism has stored internally (e.g our fat or carbohydrate) or it may come from an external source in the environment food (Nutrition) supplies two major components of life, ENERGY and the chemical building blood of life, (Bor).
Energy is required for the various enzymatic reaction that requires an input of energy for the reaction, the catalyze for example the movement of the muscles on our legs during a race, in the intestine as we digest our meal, or to draw air into lungs for breathing all require energy.
Food also supplies the structural material required for living organisms to make new macromolecules for the repair of the damaged structure or for new construction such as the manufacturing of offsprings. Apart from its vital function of sustaining life; food is referred to as labors of pathogenic organisms, if not prepared in a tidy and clean environment. This has been recognized as a problem in some restaurants in Enugu, concerned with providing proper food for consumers. Pathogenic organisms exist in two major categories.
INTOXICATIONS –INFECTION: Intoxication is a result of ingesting toxins produced by microbes that have grown on the food prior to it being eaten. Infection is the result of the food serving as a carrier that carries an infection pathogen deep into the juicy recesses of a body where it is able to gain afoot. Generally, food pathogenic organism results from contamination of food and the subsequent growth of food pathogenic organisms.
Food poisoning outbreaks are recognized by the sudden onset of illness with a short period of time among many individuals who has eaten or drunk one or more food (Jollof rice) in common. Single cases are difficult to identify unless in botulism for example there are distinct symptoms. Food pathogenic organisms may be one of the most common causes of actuating illness, yet cases are difficult to identify in Botulision.
For example, food pathogenic organism may be one of the most common causes of acute illness. Yet cases and outbreaks are generally under-recognized and under-requited. The number of bacteria present: food (jollof rice) may be used to determine whether or not the food (jollof rice) has been handled correctly. Sources, Vehicles, and Reuters of continuations
Some diseases that are spread by bacteria that enter the body in food (jollof rice) can multiply at an amazing rate when they are provided with warmth and moisture, (especially at room temperature) Our food can become an ideal home for then. Clean food (jollof rice) can be contaminated by bacterial from four main sources.
- The people present in the workplace and their clothing.
- Other food that is already contaminated.
- Dirty kitchen or work premises
- Insect and vermin.
Some time, harmful bacteria pass directly from the source of high-risk food, but usually, they rely on other things to transfer them to food. These things are called vehicles. Ihekoronye, A. and Ngoddy P.O (1979)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Statement of Problem
Pathogenic organisms are organisms that are referred to as specific health hazards associated with gas to intestinal distribute resulting from the consumption of food containing toxins. The victim suffering from abdominal pain and diarrheas with more vomiting than diarrheas usually manifest the illness, which when untreated in time result to them does not result to death it had led to unnecessary expenses in seeking medical advice. This has now made me be interested in how we can improve our food hygiene to avoid contamination… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This is to find out possible pathogenic organisms found in food (Jollof rice) sold to Top Rink Hotel and the presidential hotel to examine and identify microorganisms (bacteria) associated with the Jollof rice (food) sample collected from these hotels in Enugu. And to determines the bacteria load growth… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Significance of the Study
The significance of the work is to enable us to improve the hygiene of food (Jollof rice) served and a good knowledge of a safe food handling practice suitable light color protection clothing to be worn and it will also enable us to be aware of the various pathogenic organism and the infection they transmit through food (Jollof rice). As a result of this, the prevention of contamination of food is to be adhered to. This can be achieved by (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Composition of Rice And Its Requirement
Rice (Oryza sativa) is cultivated in swampy areas in many tropical countries where it is mainly used for humans the composition of rice differs with the variety, nature of the fertilizer applied. About 85 percent of rice consists of milled rice is low (Alverlinoetal, 1970) but when simazine is applied to flooded soil at flowering this increases the percentage of protein in the rice grain yield. The fat content is low and it is removed in the process of milling. The digestibility of the protein is high and the nutritive value depends on its amino acid content which varies Alverlinoetal 1970).
The main protein is oryzenin which is rich in argan but poor in lysine and threonine (Hawrie 1974) the number of fat-soluble vitamins A and D is negligible, but vitamin E content of whole rice is considerable. I lusked rice has a high content of vitamin B, the riboflavin, content is low and vitamin C is practically absent rice does not contain sufficient requirement for human consumption hence various ingredient is introduced into the various preparation of rice to supplement and increase the Nutritional requirement (Eorry G. Robet Skimmer (1982).
Jollof rice is one of the major dish sold in restaurant fast food joints, it is of high demand because the ingredient used in it is preparation make up a substantial portion of the human diet.
Source of Contamination
There are various sources of food contamination. The various ways are
- Main landing (servers)
This can get the food contaminated through the serving of the food i.e a case where one’s land that are not properly washed comes constant with the food that is been served to the buyer which are the consume. The presence of microorganisms in the atmosphere. Naturally, microorganisms are known everywhere they are ubiquitous when food is been exposed they tend to infest the food as a result of this the food is been contaminated. (Trickett)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Pathogenic Bacteria Organism that is Responsible for Contamination of Jollof Rice
In the preparation of Jollof, rice ingredient is used and this ingredient has certain bacteria microorganisms responsible for their spoilage as a result of this, these microorganisms will now also be responsible or included in the spoilage contamination of Jollof rice, for instance, meet which is one of the imprudent used in the preparation of Jollof rice, is been contaminated by the following microorganisms… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Some Micro Organism Responsible for Jollof Rice Spoilage
There are so many microorganisms involved in the spoilage or contamination of Jollof rice, in this case only a few of them that are common in the spoilage will be discussed. And they are as follows.
This app which is salmonella is been considered as the most principal organisms that cause the salmonella infection salmonella apparently obtained considerable alteration number on food without casing considerable alteration in the organoleptic properties of food (taste, odor, etc.).
The source of the organism includes man, which play an important role because man can excrete the organism without the symptom of illness for weeks. Humans also play an important role in cross-contamination of cooked food, other sources include the poultry, their eggs, and rodents… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Prevention of Food Pathogenic Organism
According to (Thomas) food pathogenic organism can be prevented if the following precognitions are adhered to:
- High standard of Personal Hygiene… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Samples of rice (Jollof rice) were collected from the top rank hotel and presidential hotel in Enugu town. The food is collected into a sterile cellophane bag and then taken to the laboratory for analysis.
Media Used and Sterilization Method
The media used include nutrient agar (oxide) and macconkey agar (oxide).
5.6 Grammies of Nutrient agar (NA) were weighed into 200ml of distilled water in a conical flask. This was then mixed gently by shaking and they cocked with cotton wool and foil paper it was also sterilized in the autoclave at 1210c for 15 minutes… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Research Findings and Discussion
Table 1 shows mean values for total colony count for bacterial isolates. Four bacteria were isolated: Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coil, and Klebsiella pneumonia. B. cereus, which is mainly associated with food poisoning because of its ability to produce toxins, was present in 37.5% of samples.
Table 1: Mean values for total colony count for bacterial isolates.
|Sampling point/Code||Total colony count for bacteria (cfu/g)|
|LRK1||2.4 X 105 ± 34058|
|LRK2||6.0 X 105 ± 56328|
|SRK1||2.0 X 104 ± 2489|
|SRK2||2.0 X 104 ± 2446|
|LRM1||8.8 X 105 ± 98434|
|LRM2||3.8 X 105 ± 39876|
|SRM1||1.2 X 106 ± 265344|
|SRM2||1.0 X 105 ± 18932|
Results are given as mean value ± standard deviation.
SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
With reference to the result obtained the number of organisms was found to be more than 30cfu in 100 ml of serial deletion Jollof rice when the number is more than 30cfu, it indicates pathogenicity the study confirms the presence of pathogenic bacteria in apparently Jollof rice. Rhodes et al reported that some microorganism which grows well in food may produce a toxin which when ingested will case poison in the system… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The food to be sold to consumers should be properly prepared with safe and portable water such water should be treated and inspected by medical officers who will certify such water for use. Also, the food to be sold to consumers should be prepared in a clean environment devoid of refuse dust striking sink, etc., the food should be sold in clean and well-covered dishes washed trays in addition to this the handler should be very careful the way they handle food to be the customers… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The microorganism count of retail food could be very alarming if not properly checked to ensure no further proliferation of the organisms present in the various food. Thus to reduce the organism count in food the water used for the preparation, the environment, and the utensil used should be relatively clean and inspected. If the microbial activities of the hotels in Enugu metropolis of the controlled in the preparation of food then the effects and ailments can be minimized and the disease like typhoid cholera diarrhea and fever can be eliminated… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Alverlino, P,O Miller, and D. Vergara (1970) Rice: Cultivation and Processing John Wiley and sons inc. Canada Pp 132- 133.
Bor. S. Luh (1972): Rice, Production and Utilization: Avi, Publishing Company Inc. west port, Connecticut Pg 5859.
Corryg, Robert T. & skinner F. (1982) Isolation and Identification Methods
of food poisoning organism: academic press Inc (London) Ltd 24/48 Oval Road London NW1 Pg 25-30.
Grist D (1958) Rice, 5th Longman Group Ltd. Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow Essex, Cm 2021 E England Pg 450-452.
Ihekononye A.I Ngoddy P.O (1979) Integrated food science and technology
for the tropics. Macmillan press Ltd, Houndmills, Basingstoke Hampshire RG 212 x5 and London. Pg. 253-257.
Lawrie B. (1974): Rice in the Tropics Longman Group Ltd Longman House, Burnt mill, Harlow Essex Cm 202JE, England Pg 38-43.
Lery J.J.R.C and H.H Black burn (1973). Introductory microbiology by Wiley and sons Inc New York London 2nd edition Pp 260-264.
Mottram V.H (1991). Human Nutrition 2nd Ed. Edward Arnold Publisher Ltd 25 Hill street London, W1 x 84 ll pg 220-221. (Jollof Rice)
Nicholas John (1998): Managing food Hygiene Macmillan education Hound mills, Basingstoke, Harts P.g. 1-3. (Jollof Rice)
Rhodes A and Fletcher DL (1966) Principles of Industrial Microbiology Programs Oxford PP 142 –148. (Jollof Rice)
Thomas C.G (1990) Simple Hygiene Practices: Prentice Hall Inc Pg 42 –48. (Jollof Rice)
Tickett Jull (1992) Food Hygienic for Food Handlers: Macmillan press Ltd. houndmill Basing stoke Hampshire RG 12x 5 London Pg 30.38. (Jollof Rice)