COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF USING AN OPTICAL FILTER AND THE FULL LIGHT SPECTRUM IN DEMONSTRATING PHOTOTROPISM AND BIOLOGY STUDENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The purpose of this research was to look into the “Comparative Effect of Using Optical Filter and Full Light Spectrum in Demonstrating Phototropism and Biology Students’ Academic Performances in Uyo Local Government Area.” The study population consisted of Senior Secondary Two (SS2) Biology students from public secondary schools in the Uyo Local Government Area during the 2013/2014 academic year.
A sample size of 160 students was used, with 80 students from each of two secondary schools serving as the experimental and control groups. The posttest only control group research design was used for this study. The researcher created the Biology Achievement Test as a data collection instrument (BAT). Two teaching packages on the concept of phototropism were prepared for both the experimental and control groups.
A full light spectrum model and an optical filter model were built to demonstrate the concept of phototropism for the experimental and control groups, respectively. To guide the study, three research questions and a research hypothesis were developed. The collected data was analyzed using a t-test at a significance level of 0.05.
This study discovered a significant difference in academic performance between Biology students taught the concept of phototropism using an optical filter model and those taught using a full light spectrum model. The findings also indicated that comparing gender across study groups influenced student academic performance.
This chapter is intended to cover the study’s background, problem statement, purpose, research questions, research hypothesis, significance of the study, delimitation of the study, limitation of the study, and definition of terms.
1.1 The Study’s Background
Science is a great enterprise on which nations rely to advance technologically. As a result of its importance and relevance to life and society, science is receiving a lot of attention in education.
Biology, as a branch of science and a prerequisite subject for many fields of study, contributes significantly to the nation’s technological growth. This includes fields such as medicine, forestry, agriculture, biotechnology, and nursing, among others.
Biology study in senior secondary school can provide students with useful concepts, principles, and theories to help them face challenges before and after graduation. Biology practical activities allow students to actually do science rather than just learn about it.
According to Nzewi (2008), practical activities can be viewed as a strategy that can be used to make a teacher’s task (teaching) more real to students as opposed to abstract or theoretical presentation of facts, principles, and concepts of subject matter. Nzewi maintained that practical activities should engage students in hands-on, mind-on activities that make use of a variety of instructional materials/equipment to drive home the lesson.
According to Nwagbo (2008), the use of practical activities (approach) to the teaching of biological concepts should be a rule rather than an option for biology teachers if we hope to produce students who can acquire the necessary knowledge, skills, and competence to meet the nation’s scientific and technological demands. The search for a more effective approach to teaching and learning biology that will improve the development of intellectual skills and attitudes required to learn concepts has been ongoing for many years.
According to Okoli (2006), many science teachers prefer the traditional expository/lecture method of teaching, which is a teaching technique in which one person, the teacher, presents a spoken discourse on a specific subject and avoid activity-oriented teaching methods that are student-centered (such as the inquiry method, discovery method, investigative laboratory approach, and so on).
According to Nwagbo (2006), a teacher-centered approach in which the teacher is the sole possessor of knowledge and the students are passive recipients of knowledge may not improve achievement or promote a positive attitude toward biology.
Science education is expected to produce individuals capable of solving their own problems as well as those of society. Individuals in this category are expected to be self-sufficient, confident, and autonomous. Science and technology are the foundations of progress in nearly every field of human endeavor.
Obiekwe (2008) reported that science instruction in Nigerian secondary schools is in disarray, citing the overemphasis on content and the use of the “Chalk and talk” method, which neglects the practical activity method, which improves teaching and learning.
This carelessness and’shy-away’ attitude from activity-oriented teaching methods has resulted in abstraction, which makes students less active and more prone to rote memorization. Much has been done in Nigeria to improve science education in secondary schools.
Despite this, students continue to perform poorly in science subjects, including biology. This situation has necessitated the development of more effective teaching methods. It is then necessary to investigate the efficacy of alternative methods of resolving this situation.
1.2 Statement Of the problem
Education’s importance in any society cannot be overstated. It is regarded as the single most powerful factor that leads to the improvement of both the individual and the society. As a result, providing basic formal education in all Akwa Ibom State schools is a critical social responsibility.
The question of whether the students-teachers education program is credible in terms of effectiveness and appropriateness of instructional materials has remained a major source of concern. Biology instruction, teachers, and equipment are typically regarded as subpar; inadequate equipment and a lack of teachers contribute to poor Biology education.
Instructional materials must be used for learning to be meaningful and permanent. As a result, the purpose of this study is to compare the effects of using an optical filter versus the full light spectrum in demonstrating the concept of phototropism mechanism and biology students’ academic performance in senior secondary schools in Uyo Local Government Area.
1.3 The Study’s Purpose
The goal of this study is to compare the effects of using an optical filter versus the full light spectrum in demonstrating phototropism and Biology students’ academic performances/achievements in Uyo Local Government Area senior secondary schools.
The study’s specific goals are as follows:
Compare the academic performance of biology students who were taught phototropism using the Optical filter model versus those who were taught using the Full light spectrum model.
Compare male students’ academic performance when taught phototropism using the Optical filter model versus those taught using the Full light spectrum model.
Compare female students’ academic performance when taught phototropism using the Optical filter model versus those taught using the Full light spectrum model.
1.4 Research Questions
To guide this study, the following research questions were proposed:
How does the use of an optical filter model improve students’ academic performance on the concept of phototropism compared to the full light spectrum model?
How do male students taught phototropism using an optical filter model differ from those taught using a full light spectrum model in terms of academic performance?
How do female students taught phototropism using an optical filter model differ from those taught using a full light spectrum model in terms of academic performance?
1.5 Research Theories
At the 0.05 level of significance, the following null hypotheses will be tested.
There is no significant difference in students’ academic performance on the concept of phototropism when taught using the optical filter model versus those taught using the Full light spectrum model.
There is no statistically significant difference in academic performance between male students who were taught phototropism using an optical filter model and those who were taught using a full light spectrum model.
There is no statistically significant difference in academic performance between female students who were taught phototropism using an optical filter model and those who were taught using a full light spectrum model.
1.6 Importance of the Research
Recent scientific researchers have focused on improving science teaching methods in order to improve student performance in science subjects. Given the importance placed on science education, the purpose of this research is to:
Looking for more effective teaching methods and ways to improve meaningful learning.
Improving student understanding and academic performance in the area of phototropism.
Providing a teaching/learning strategy for Biology teachers to use for effective teaching and learning, and thus meeting the needs of individual students in the class.
Having an impact on curriculum innovation programs in Biology.
1.7 The Study’s Limitations
The research was conducted in two secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State’s Uyo Local Government Area. Students from Senior Secondary Two (SS2) classes were used in the study because they were deemed appropriate for the concept at hand. The study uses the optical filter model and the full light spectrum model to demonstrate the concept of phototropism.
1.8 The Study’s Limitations
Despite careful study and research to ensure the success of this work, there have been some challenges and shortcomings that have hampered the smooth execution of this research work. It was difficult to find review literature materials and journals that provided concrete information in the area of study.
The work also took into account the given time frame, which could not be exceeded, as well as the financial implications of publishing bulky hard copies. In addition, difficulties were encountered in adapting the model design to function while designing an instrument to demonstrate the concept of phototropism.
1.9 Glossary of Terms
Optical filters are devices that selectively transmit light of various wavelengths (colors) while blocking the rest.
Full-Light Spectrum: This is light that spans the electromagnetic spectrum from infrared to near ultraviolent, or all wavelengths useful to plant or animal life; sunlight, in particular, is considered full spectrum. There are now dozens of full-spectrum electric lighting products on the market, but sunlight remains the natural full-spectrum available for plant growth.
Phototropism is the growth of an organism in response to light; it is most commonly seen in plants.
Academic performance/achievement: The outcome of education – the extent to which students have met their educational objectives.
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