Project Materials




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A well-written Chapter One should have all or some of the following in its outline:



  • Background of the study
  • Statement of the problem
  • Research objectives
  • Research Hypotheses and/or Questions
  • Significance of the Research
  • Scope and limitation of the study
  • Basic Assumptions
  • Operational Term Definition


As was said above, a significant portion of the project work is the project outline, therefore all that is left for the student researcher to do is polish the authorized research plan to use it as Chapter One, with the addition of the Operational Definition of Terms, all the other sections that had been created for the project proposal would still be valid.

At this point, it is crucial to comprehend and be aware of what each of the first chapter’s subheadings means; this page goes into great detail about them.

  • Background of the study

This part explains the history of the topic under examination, the development of the research challenge, and how the researcher came to be intrigued by the problem, just as the name implies, the student then goes on to detail the precise circumstances surrounding the study challenge, supporting his points with information from the literature, the student researcher attempts to determine the applicability and viability of the study in this portion as well, concluding the adequate evidence gleaned from the prior literature.

In a nutshell, this is when the student researcher introduces the topic of his investigation and establishes its foundation utilizing all available facts and data. Even though there is no set number of pages for this, it is important to keep in mind that the background to the study’s duration and topic are both important for laying a sound and solid foundation for the research that will be undertaken.

  • Statement of the problem

The idea is that although the Background to the Study provides a broader or international viewpoint or stand on the topic of the research, the Problem Statement is a plausible conclusion of the concerns or problems noted in the Background to the Study.

The Problem Statement concludes the specifics as they apply to the particular inquiry being done based on those assumptions and because they are not expected to be two distinct entities, as it were, the Problem Statement is expected to flow rather logically from the Background to the Study, if it deviates from this, it is not a good Problem Statement.

Despite this, it differs from the Background of the Study in that it must be described very succinctly. The Background to the Study’s entire descriptive structure would have made it easier to jump right to the specifics under the Problem Statement and because of this, project supervisors would argue that the Problem Statement should only be one to three pages long.

The notion is that the clearer it is, the better it is for the entire inquiry process if it is shorter. In summary, as the outcome of the study depends on how precisely and clearly the research challenge is stated, its importance cannot be overstated.

Therefore, there is no question that the most crucial element of a research process is a satisfactory characterization of the study problem. As a result, the Problem Statement guides the remainder of the project by identifying and emphasizing the key factors that concern the researcher as well as the precise nature of their relationship.

  • Research objectives

Like every other component of a research project, the study’s objectives are strongly tied to the research problem and are thus generated from the latter. The goals of doing the research are referred to as the study’s objectives, sometimes known as its purpose, and they can be further broken down into general and specific goals, the particular objective is concerned with the entire list of intents regarding what the research aims to accomplish at the end of the project, while the broad objective describes the overarching goal of a research project, the particular objectives are typically expressed as declarative expressions.

  • Research Questions and/or Hypotheses, section

Due to their close association with the Research objectives, these usually come right after them and in addition to breaking down the primary issues condensed in the study objectives, they also try to change the objectives’ declarative language into an interrogative form. Research Questions are presented exactly like interrogations to establish particular relationships among the primary variables under inquiry, as their name suggests.

Additionally, the Research Questions typically act as the starting point from which the final questionnaire items and questions would be produced. The elements in the questionnaire provide a more detailed description of each of the study questions, which is how they differ from the two, this has reached the point where one study issue can generate anywhere from three to five questionnaire items or inquiries. Although the research questions are broad in scope, the questionnaire items are frequently focused on the details, which allows for greater specificity.

Even though they are occasionally used interchangeably, hypotheses and research questions are not the same in this circumstance. In other words, it is common to find projects that include both of them as well as those that have only one and they cannot be expected to replace one another because they are not interchangeable.

If they have a chance to achieve it, one should be kept and the other should be thrown away. By knowing this knowledge, one can easily understand that a project doesn’t need to contain both; especially at the elementary level.

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  • Significance of the study

Every research effort, no matter how modest, is expected to add something new to the body of knowledge in that study subject. In reality, since advancing knowledge is the main goal of all research initiatives, no study should be conducted if it will not add to it.

It’s expected that this part will make clear any potential advantages of the research as well as the intended audience for those advantages, these should all be explained in simple terms and there is no set specification for the number of advantages or length of a research study, depending on the person’s writing style, it may be presented consecutively, as an itemized list, or in paraphrase.

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  • Scope and limitation of the study

A clear statement of the problem will serve as an effective roadmap for doing this. The scope of the study essentially refers to the degree of coverage of the research subject being investigated. Therefore, if the problem had been adequately articulated at the outset, it would have undoubtedly helped in determining the research’s scope.

Because of this, the study’s scope is somewhat influenced by the project’s title. If properly phrased, the term in the title merely serves to describe the study’s focus and may require a small qualifier. The study’s limitations are represented by the objects and problems that presented difficulties during the course of the research.

Limitation, therefore, entails erecting a wall around the research subject if the scope was concerned with the depth of coverage. This is done to lay the groundwork for why some things were purposefully left out of the study.

  • Operational Definition of Terms

All the ideas that would be operationally employed throughout the investigation are given a form of working description in this section of Chapter One’s introduction, the idea is that some terminologies have been “adapted” and hence used sparingly for the study project’s goals.

Operational Definition of Terms derives from the implication that such terminologies would signify something substantially different from those modified under various conditions and individual concepts or words that need to be defined operationally are identified and then listed so operational definitions are frequently provided in a way that suggests they are unique to the study at hand rather than the definitions that are generally acknowledged as standards.



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