FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICIES AND IT’S IMPACT ON THE NIGERIAN ECONOMY
The study is an impact of Nigeria’s foreign policy under the administration of President Goodluck Jonathan. This work is necessitated on the premise that no state in modern times can avoid involvement in international affairs, and this involvement must be systematic and based on certain principles. The objective of this work was to determine if Nigeria’s policy under the period in view had a significant impact on the Nigerian global image.
Data for this study was obtained from secondary sources; the expose facto research design was adopted while the qualitative descriptive method was adopted to analyze data. The concentric circle theory formed a framework of analysis… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Nigerian economy during the first decade after independence could reasonably be described as an agricultural economy because in the words Ogen (2003), agriculture-served as the engine of growth of the overall economy. During this period Nigeria was the world’s second-largest producer of cocoa, the largest exporter of palm kernel and largest producer and exporter of palm oil. According to Alkali (1997), Nigeria was also a leading exporter of other major commodities such as cotton, groundnut, rubber and hides, and skins.
Lawal (1997) observed that the agricultural sector contributed over 60% of the GDP in the 1960s and despite the reliance of Nigerian peasant farmers on traditional tools and indigenous farming methods, these farmers produced 70% of Nigeria’s exports and 95% of its food needs. However, the agricultural sector was relegated to the background when Nigeria became an oil-exporting country.
This relegation was attributed to inappropriate exchange rate policy which made the prices of agricultural output too low to give farmers. Examining the personality of the leader both at the theoretical and practical levels is therefore important to the understanding of Nigeria’s foreign policy.
This is largely due to the fact that critical historical analysis revealed that the country’s foreign policy is synonymous with the personality of the leader on board at any given time. However, it is important to accentuate that Nigeria’s foreign policy started at a moderate level since its independence in 1960. This may be largely due to smooth power relinquishing that occurred between Nigeria and the then colonial master (Britain).
The crux of the matter remains that, there was nothing in the pattern and traditions of Nigerian foreign policy from independence to the emergence of Sani Abacha as Head of state to suggest that the country would become a pariah state in the international system. Even the speech of the Prime Minister, Tafawa Balewa on Independence Day October 1, 1960, seemed to indicate that Nigeria was properly focused, and her mindset firmly directed at the goal of her foreign policy. He declared thus;
I have indeed very confidence that based on the happy experience of a successful partnership our future relations with the United Kingdom will be more cordial than ever, bound together as we shall be in the commonwealth by a common allegiance to her majesty Queen Elizabeth whom we proudly acclaim as Queen of Nigeria (hence) we are grateful to the British Officers who we have known, first as masters and then as leaders and finally as partners but always as friends (Balewa, 1960:26)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Statement of the Problem
Relations between Nigeria and other state and non–state actors in international politics from 1999 onward were based on democratic principles. The tit-for-tat diplomacy of late Gen. Sani Abacha, de facto President of Nigeria from 1993 to 1998 had greatly damaged the image of Nigeria. The government was accused of human rights abuses and was repeatedly condemned by the U.S. State Department.
There was break in relationship with many countries with threats of economic sanctions from others. Apart from this, the government was characterized by an inconsistent foreign policy which made Nigeria scorn in the comity of nations… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This study has both broad and specific objectives. The broad objective of this study is to evaluate Nigeria’s foreign policy under the administration of President Goodluck Jonathan 2011 to 2015. However, the specific objectives are as follows:
- To determine if Nigeria’s Foreign Policy had any implication on Nigeria’s global image… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Significance of the Study
This study has theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, it will add to already existing knowledge in the field of foreign relations and related fields. Practically;
- It will be useful to scholars’ especially diplomatic historians, political scientists, economists, and international relations experts in their research. Diplomats like ambassadors, high commissioners, and staffers of foreign ministries will benefit from the work… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This section is an examination of past works of other authors, analysts expressed in past projects and textbooks. This chapter has three basic sections. The first section of the chapter attempts a conceptual discourse of some terms that are central to this thesis. These include national interest, national roles, role conceptions, foreign policy and African policy.
The second section explores the secondary literature relevant to the study, discussing their central arguments and weighing the extent of contribution to the theme under focus, with the aim of identifying what gaps the study intends to fill.
The Concepts of “Nation” and “National”
Can one actually refer to the roles, interests, and general issues concerning Nigeria “national”, when technically, only a ”nation” can have such an attribute? Is Nigeria a nation? Traditionally, a nation is a group of people with a common heritage and homogenous socio-cultural elements who live in a social space or community.
Historical development and experience have changed or broadened the concept of a state, to mean a community of people with or without common heritage or homogenous cultures but who have gone beyond any forms of differences and resolved to live together as a sovereign people in a sovereign state.
It is for such a group that issues that affect them can be described as ‘national”, and whatever cause of nation-building can be called nationalism. The Unabridged Dictionary of 2006 has defined it more succinctly as” “a large body of people associated with a particular territory conscious of its unity to seek or possess a government… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
National interest is a generally controversial concept in foreign policy analysis. Scholars do not agree on the fact that national interest has a universally accepted definition and contend with the view of whether there is anything that can be called “national” in view of the multitude of prevailing personal, class, group, sectional, and public interests in a state. This is because there is no definitive measure or a common plank for the streamlining of all these conflicting interests to “national” interest.
Hence, some view national interests as the interests of the political or ruling class because they may have been constitutionally or traditionally empowered by their leadership position to decide for the rest having been given the general will by the people through popular or dubious election (Rosati, 2006), or by forceful submission in the case of military dictatorship… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Nigeria’s image crisis has a historical foundation and dynamics (Ajayi, 2005:50). This section becomes relevant as it explores Nigeria’simage since 1960 in order to identify the highlights and turning points in Nigeria’simage and foreign policy.
Tafawa Balewa, through his pioneering foreign policy anchored on Afrocentricism, was able to lay the foundation for Nigeria’sroles and influences in international politics which; ultimately helped to give a credible image for the country in the comity of nations (Ajayi, 2005). The expulsion of apartheid South Africa, breaking of ties with France and participation in the Non-aligned movement rang positive bells towards Nigeria’s image abroad (Folarin, 2013:21).
The expelling of illegal aliens from Nigeria, in the guise of national interest, was an action that was indeed inimical to the country’s development. Over two to three million illegal immigrants were given fourteen days to leave the country. This action alone created a bad image for Nigeria abroad (Lukpata, 2013:65).
Thus, Shagari’s administration was described as inhumane, callous, and irresponsible. It did incalculable damage to Nigeria’sreputation and standing among the Great Powers and the developing world…. (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
- Positive Impacts of Nigeria’s Foreign Policy under President Good luck Jonathan.
For every objective or goal, it is imperative to define means and plans intended for the achievement of the specified objective. In the same vein, Akinterinwa (2014) averred that “strategy and technique may be likened to two inseparable sides of a foreign policy coin” (p. 255). He further explained that “…a technique…is a method adopted to achieve a specific objective”, while “a strategy, on the other hand, is generally considered as a long-term plan, comprising various integral components and designed to ensure the achievement of a broad set of goals” (p. 255).
This is not to say that techniques and strategies are mutually exclusive. In fact, Akinterinwa (2014) opines that some of the listed foreign policy objectives in the Nigerian constitution can be regarded both as strategies and techniques… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
- Challenges in implementing Nigeria’s Foreign policy’s administration.
Foreign Direct Investment into Nigeria in 2011, when Jonathan took office, increased from $6.5 billion in the previous year to $8.9 billion (Umejei, 2014). However, the figure has since been plummeting. In 2012 and 2013, FDI was $7 billion and $5.5 billion respectively (Umejei, 2014).
The Jonathan administration observed that “lack of continuity, consistency, and commitment (3Cs) to agreed policies, programs and projects…” is the reason why growth and development of the Nigerian economy do not correspond with “the overall welfare of Nigerian citizens, rising unemployment, inequality and poverty” (Akinterinwa, 2014, p. 275).
We know the administration has not changed its policies between 2011 and now, but perhaps its level of commitment has diminished, and it is not consistent in its efforts. Contributing to the decline of investments is the situation of insecurity and instability in the country. Attempts to mobilize the diaspora community to either return to Nigeria or make investments in the economy have come to naught… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The findings of the study show that:
- Internal challenges were responsible for dampening Nigeria’s attainment of positive international image and national transformation. Some of these challenges include leadership crisis, corruption, insurgency, irregular power supply, low quality public service delivery, and rating of the nation’s educational institutions amongst others… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This study gathered that Nigeria’s Foreign Policy’s administration had no significant role in boosting the global image of Nigeria. Therefore, it was concluded that the foreign policies established by Goodluck Jonathan’s administration had a near negative impact and implication on the global image of Nigeria as clearly stated before.
Based on the findings from the data collected, the following recommendations have been made:
- A major reorganization of the Foreign Service such that positions of the Ambassadors and other key positions will no longer be politicized. Only career diplomats and practitioners who understand the nuances of international relations and global politics should be appointed into those sensitive positions and offices… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
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(Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)