GOOD GOVERNANCE AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
This research studies Good Governance and conflict resolution in Anambra state with a focus on the Umuleri and Aguleri communities’ experience. Both communities were engulfed in intractable conflicts over the ownership of Otuocha land. Aside from the contest over land, both communities have been engaged in the reconstruction of their history with each claiming to be the direct descendant of Eri. The research adopts a qualitative evaluation method. The research basically draws from primary and secondary sources. The research hypothesized that good governance is the major ingredient in conflict resolution… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Background of the Study
Governance, according to the World Bank Report (2010) is the exercise of political power in the management of a nation’s affairs. This definition thus implies that governance encompasses the state’s institutional and structural arrangements, decision-making processes and implementation capacity, and the relationship between the governing apparatus and the governed-that is the people in terms of their standard of living.
Odock (2011) in his analysis sees good governance as “a system of government based on good leadership, respect for the rule of law and due process, the accountability of the political leadership to the electorate as well as transparency in the operations of government”. Transparency, Odock opined that it has to do with the leadership carrying out government business in an open, easy to understand and explicit manner, such that the rules made by the government, the policies implemented by the government and the results of government activities are easy to verify to the ordinary citizens.
Accountability as a component of good governance refers to the fact that those who occupy positions of leadership in the government must give account or subject themselves to the will and desire of the society and people them lead. Unfortunately, this is lacking in the public domain in Nigeria.
Governance typically emphasizes leadership which suggests the way political leaders meaning the apparatus of the state, use or misuse power, to promote social and economic development, or to engage in those agendas that largely undermine the realization of the good things of life for the people.
Good governance is in tandem with democratic governance which is largely characterized by high valued principles such as rule of law, accountability, participation, transparency, human and civil rights. These governance qualities have the capacity to provide the development process of a country… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Statement of Problem
Most of these conflicts such as the Ife-Modakeke crisis have been going on for more than a century [Agbe, 2001; Toriola, 2001] to the extent that Augsburger  andOmotayo  argue that their current goals/intentions have deviated from that which led to the conflicts originally.
Although these conflicts vary significantly in dimension, process and the groups involved [Famoriyo, 1983], scholars have come to agree that the following factors are responsible for them; resource distribution and use [Momale, 2003]; Struggle for land [Barlowe, 1978]; pastoral areas and fishing spots [Maiga and Diallo, 1998]; etc.
In fact, Famoriyo  argued that the causes of these conflicts have social, political, and cultural dimensions as well as legal… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This paper reflects that most internecine of all the conflict, which took place in AguleriUmuleri between 1999 and 2000, with a view to: –
- Identify ownership structure and tenure systems existing in the study area… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Significance of the study
This work will serve as a resource material for scholars researching on the conflict between Aguleri and Umuleri. It is also the aim of this study to interpret conflict from a historic point of view and lay particular emphasis on the social impact of conflict not just on the two communities but also on neighboring communities.
It will also portray the changes in the dimension of the conflicts over the years as a result of the proliferation of weapons of destruction. In a nutshell, the study will expose the enmity between both communities which gave rise to the magnitude of violence that accompanied the land disputes between Aguleri and Umuleri from 1964 to 1999… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conflict: Conflict is understood here as a collision of interest between different persons and groups who are motivated by the economic, political, cultural, and social rewards they are likely to enjoy by having kin or communal identity.
Security: Security here refers to the existence of conditions within which people can go about their normal daily political, social, and economic interests and activities without any threats to their lives.
Development: Development is defined as “the progressive satisfaction of the needs of human and non-human nature, starting with those most in need”.
Horowitz (2000) perceives communal conflict as that violence that is perpetrated „across ethnic lines in which at least one party is not the state and in which victims are chosen by their group membership‟.
This definition though contested by scholars like [Gurr and Harff, 1994], has come to be accepted in as much as it is characterized by significant destruction, displacement, and suffering [Barron, Kaiser, and Pradhan, 2004]… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Strategies for Conflict Resolution
Different procedural strategies abound for the resolution of conflicts. These strategies could either be formal or informal. Among this myriad of strategies, a few stand out for consideration. Borrowing Zartman’s six-fold typology (Zartman, 1997, p. 12) with modifications it will be discussed in what immediately follows eight strategies for resolving conflicts.
The first strategy is Reconciling and it involves the bringing together of disputing parties around a table by a neutral party in order for the feuding parties to bury their hatchets. In the parlance of labor relations, this strategy is otherwise called bargaining or negotiating. In either way, parties in dispute are called together to clarify the points of conflict and reach a peaceful compromise.
In the case of local administration, this is a very invaluable strategy and it is hereby recommended… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Styles or Strategies for Managing Conflict
Rahim (2000; 5) pointed out that, the concept of “conflict resolution implies reduction, elimination, or termination of conflict. There are various conflict strategies or styles which various scholars have identified.
Rahim (1983:369-376) identified five styles which are the most common in solving conflict within individuals, groups, and community at larger. These are;
- Avoidance conflict style
Avoidance conflict style is typically used when an individual has reduced concern for their own outcomes as well as the outcomes of others. During the conflict, these avoiders adopt a “wait and see” attitude, often allowing conflict to phase out on its own without any personal involvement, unfortunately, by neglecting to address high-conflict situations, avoiders risk allowing problems to fester out of control (Bayazit & Mannix, 2003)
- Yielding/ accommodating conflict style
Yielding or accommodating conflict styles are characterized by a high concern for others while having a low concern for one’s own self. This passive pro-social approach emerges when individuals derive personal satisfaction from meeting the needs of others and have a general concern for maintaining stable, positive social relationships… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
- Conflict theory
This study was guided by conflict theory; the theory emphasizes the existence of opposing forces in the life of individuals, groups, social structures, and society in general. This theory views human society as a collection of competing interest groups and individuals, each with their own motives and expectations.
Conflict theory draws attention to power differentials, such as class conflict, and generally contrast historically dominant ideologies. It is, therefore, a macro-level analysis of society. Conflict theory is very important for any manager. It is rooted primarily in the fields of business, sociology, and psychology, but not in communication or education… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This study is based on one month of field research in Aguleri and Umuleri. The purpose of the field research was to observe at first hand the effects of the conflict on the socio-economic development of the two communities and to sample views and perceptions on the ground on the effects of the conflict.
For the purpose of this research, the researcher used both primary and secondary data. The principal method of collecting the primary data has been through in-depth interviews, focus group discussion and library research. These different methods were meant to complement and corroborate each other… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Framework of Analysis
Available resources, time and space, etc places severe limitations on any attempt by this research to test all the theoretical propositions on conflict [communal conflict]. Consequently, the research adopts the economic theory of conflict in its reflection on the Aguleri-Umuleri conflict, which assumes that all the parties in the conflict are assumed to be rational economic players driven by the urge to maximize power in order to have access to the economic rewards of victory… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
The data generated were processed through selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting, and transforming the raw data as postulated by Miles and Huberman [1984; 2 cited in Silverman, 2000: 177]. There-from, inferences were drawn after establishing what things mean, noting regularities, patterns, explanations, possible configuration, causal flows, and propositions. Thus, context analysis was our method of data analysis and conclusion.
The Cause of Aguleri-Umuleri Conflict
From the analysis, the researchers observed that the crisis between Aguleri and Umuleri, who are two communities of the same Igbo ethnic extraction and predominantly Christians, dates back to the beginnings of each community’s recorded history.
The central point of conflict has been which they first settled in its current territory and which community has the prior claim to the area known as Otuocha… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Major styles or strategies used to solve the conflict in Aguleri-Umuleri
Conflict management involves implementing strategies to limit the negative aspects of conflict and to increase the positive aspects of conflict, such as through enhanced team learning and group outcomes. Conflict can significantly affect employee job satisfaction, focus, turnover, and even the risk of litigation… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Figure 4.4 Major styles used to solve the conflict in Aguleri-Umuleri
Source: Field data
The above Figure 4.4 shows that the major styles used in solving the conflict in the council were bargaining that ranked the first with the frequency of (38%), meetings that ranked the second position (35%) and compromising (21%) that was ranked third while avoiding style (6%) is used in small extent in solving conflict… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Boundaries are made by human beings, for human beings and should, therefore, be made for human convenience. When and where an existing boundary poses a security threat, both parties should form a boundary adjustment committee by themselves to address the issue and not government imposing such adjustment on them.
The dominant political force among the parties normally employs the instrumentalities of the state to re-adjust the boundaries to their advantage, thereby shifting the evil days of the conflict. The Aguleri-Umuleri conflict arose out of the quest by the two communities to control the famous colonial center and local government headquarters – Otuocha and environs… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Recommendations for improvement
Based on the findings from this study, Conflict Management in Aguleri-Umuleri in Nigeria should facilitate and support a culture of a healthy response to workplace conflict by considering the following recommendations;
- The Council should conduct regular meetings between the management and employees, this will help the management to know the problems facing their employees as a result occurrence of conflict can be minimized. The integrity and disciplinary committee should be known to all employees and meet regularly so as to handle conflict when it arises… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
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