IMPACT OF ELECTORAL MALPRACTICES ON GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA
IMPACT OF ELECTORAL MALPRACTICES ON GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria, with 36 states, is one of Africa's developing countries. During the British Colonialism period of colonisation. It is possible that open rigging of elections in Nigeria began with the general election of 1956,
which was the first election after British colonisation ended in 1960. Previously, the ruling party was the Nigerian People's Congress (NPC), and the National Convention of Nigerian Citizens (NCNC) had collapsed upon the country's independence in 1960.
The NCNC and the Action Group had now formed a new alliance, the United Progressive Grand Alliance, while the Northern Peoples Congress (NPC) was widely believed in the West to have sponsored the Action Group, which had allied with Chief Ladoka Akintola's Nigeria National Democratic Party (NNPP) to form the NNA.
Despite all party consensus to ensure a free and fair election of a meeting called by the former prime minister, all agreement reached with the (UPGA) United Progressive Grand Alliance in sworn affidavits submitted to be the president of the Federal Republic
showed how the agreement was lifted to bans on public meetings for rallies in the north were denied, and mass arrests of their candidates and polling agents in the North were denied.
As a result, despite the boycott, elections were allegedly held in Northern and Western Nigeria, as well as the Federal Territory of Lagos, where the NNA government was in charge.
According to Nwabueze, the “wholesale rigging” in the 1965 election, particularly in regional elections in the Western Region, was worse than the 1964 election. Nwabueze notes in his study evaluation that the major agents of election manipulation in the dumping of ballot papers were the presiding officer and poll clerks at the polling stations.
Arikpo, in his own view of study for the development of electoral malpractice, recounted in “Development of modern Nigeria” that “the most notorious example of this travesty was the case of a man who won election in one of the Owo constituencies,
his NNDP opponent was declared the Victor, the announced that he had upon deep reflection he decided to join the NNDP a view day after the announcement was made by the Electoral Commissioner declared him the successful candidate.”
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
We have heard a lot about electoral violence in Nigerian society over the years, and it is a well-known fact that this cannot result in the achievement of a good electoral conduct of election, in which the economy of a country (Nigeria) is unstable and in need of a sustainable development.
The researcher embarked on this research topic in order to find how electoral fraud has been able to effect good governance in Nigeria in order to reach their specified aims.
Political leaders and elites establish electoral malpractice in order to destabilise political competition. The electoral political competitiveness process. The problem with election malpractice is the systematic breach of laws in which the culture of impurity is so entrenched that no citizen knows what to do.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this research is to:
Examine the influence of electoral misconduct on good governance in Nigeria.
determining the level of good governance in Nigeria
To assess the effective election rule in Nigeria
Making any necessary recommendations.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study “Electoral malpractice and its impact on good governance in Nigeria” is significant because it attempts to evaluate and assess the electorate's impact on good governance.
This study is a predetermined path for creating electoral processes in order to attain a specific aim and put an end to electoral malpractice.
It will also look into specific recommendations for election administration and law reform that will bring about change within political parties, measures to halting the competitive spiral of electoral misbehaviour,
and tactics for reducing violence and conflict. The study would also serve as a guideline for students at higher education institutions for the purposes of this research.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this research is to “analyse the role, effectiveness, and impact of electoral malpractice on good governance in Nigeria,” with reference to all accessible angles and resources both within and beyond the state.
As a result, references will be pulled or made from other countries around the world, including World Bank reports and assessments.
1.6 THE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
As a result, this study is primarily descriptive. It will rely on secondary source information. Personal interviews, textbooks, periodicals, newspapers, seminar papers, lecture notes, and other documentation materials, as well as the Internet, were used to gather the information for this study.
There are several theories and approaches in Political Science that could be used to analyse the role of electoral malpractice. One such theory is institutional theory, which focuses on the various governmental institutions,
describing their structures, organisation, duties, and expected functions with little attention paid to the institutional characteristics of governmental policies (Abdulsalami).
The theory assumes that government institutions frequently initiate, form, decide, and implement public policy, and that institution analysis focusing on structures, arrangements, procedures, and relationships with other institutions can aid in understanding policy formulation and implementation.
Using this theory, the executive (the president and the executive council), the legislative body (the Senate and house of Representatives), and the judiciary (courts) will be the focus of policy analysis at the national level in Nigeria.
As a result, Nigerian politics focuses around these institutions. As a result, understanding public policy in Nigeria would necessitate a study of the constitution as well as the operation and interdependence of various institutions.
1.8 DEFINITION OF THE TERM
It is vital to highlight in this research endeavour that a single word may have more than one or two demotions of various applications. As a result, it is necessary to describe some of the major terms or words utilised in this assessment or study effort at this point.
In order to minimise ambiguity, various essential words such as electoral, election, governance, reform, malpractice, rigging, democracy, and corruption are used.
Electoral: These are groupings of individuals or organisations that get together to elect a person or, more specifically, for the purpose of an election. It is also a group of individuals chosen to represent members of a political party in elections for a certain leader.
Election: The act of selecting candidates to represent the people of a specific country in the legislature.
Governance is the process or activity of governing a country or controlling a firm or organisation in which a country's affairs are governed.
Reform refers to the process of altering the behavioural system, location organisation law, and manner of worship.
Malpractices are instances of sloppy, incorrect, or illegal activity while performing professional duties. It is also the act of being unfair, dissatisfied with one's job, violating labour laws, and doing wrong by an organisation or individual.
Rigging is a method of influencing an organisation, community, individual, or group of individuals, such as rigging in an election.
Democracy is defined as a process or system of government organised around the ideas of popular sovereignty, political and economic equality, popular consultation, and majority rule.
Popular Sovereignty: This is the procedure by which people elect or pick their leader.
Political and Economic Equality: This is a circumstance in which all votes must be equal and the contender must be financially capable of completing the assignment without relying on others.
Finally, corruption is a type of dishonest or illegal activity that is a negative character as well as an immoral deed of an institution, society, or individual.
1.9 ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY
This study is divided into four chapters, the first of which introduces the work and the second of which focuses on the literature review. The third chapter focuses on electoral malpractice and its impact on good governance in Nigeria:
A case study and investigation of the 2007 General Election in Akwa Ibom State, as well as the poison of election rigging. The fourth chapter is about the summary conclusion and recommendation.