DEMOCRACY AND THE PROBLEMS OF FEDERALISM IN NIGER
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria, the world's most populous black country, with a population of around 140 million people and over 350 separate linguistic groups, successfully transitioned to democratic governance on May 29, 1999, following many years of military control.
A federal system of governance is frequently formed by groups of individuals who want to form a union without necessarily using their identities. Federalism appears to be an appealing system of government, particularly in the context of ethnic heterogeneity present in many African states.
It is widely acknowledged that, thus far, federalism has failed to eliminate the scourge of ethnicity, sectionalism, and religious conflict from Nigerian politics. After forty years of attempting to navigate the muddy waters of Nigerian politics,
many, including nationalists, politicians, and civil society, have become disillusioned to the point where they are clamouring for the country's outright balkanization.
Furthermore, in Nigeria, the contestation over federalism has basically shown itself in two ways: as a guest for access to and control over political authority, or as a visitor for access to federally created wealth.
Momoh (1999:3) stated that the work of social engineering and reconstruction of the concept of federalism in both form and substance was placed in the hands of the military.
It was unsurprising that the country was at the centre of the federalism crisis. Also, because the revenue allocation concept was narrowed in favour of the states, state and municipal governments demanded greater revenue.
It is worth noting that the idiosyncrasies, anomalies, and tensions that troubled and continue to vexed Nigerian federalism arose from sources other than the military's oppressive authority (Suberu 1994:68).
However, there is still some uncertainty that the desire to reform Nigeria's federal practice attracts many Nigerians. Also, in the current regime, it is expected that several vexing issues such as the federal government's overcentralization of powers,
the formation of states, income allocation, the formation of local government councils, and the issue of citizenship will be given priority consideration.
Much as it has been achieved in most European colonies, the viability of federalism in Nigeria has been distant from political transparency. Democracy in its true meaning should exist to embrace and respect the opinions of the various units that have come together to establish a new political society.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
When Nigeria established the republican system of government following independence, the problem linked with the practice of federalism reared its ugly head. The practice of federalism in Nigeria has been extremely complex due to the involvement of several ethnic groups.
The primary goal of this research is to uncover potential concerns with federalism in Nigeria's democratic setting. The following issue might be relevant.
What are the issues confronting Nigeria's federal system?
How have these issues exacerbated Nigeria's already deteriorating democratic settings?
What initiatives and strategies have been done to address these issues?
What are the chances that Nigeria's democracy will thrive and survive in the face of federal problems?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The goals of this study are to identify the challenges that federalism poses to the practice of democracy in Nigeria. It is also within the scope of this work to attempt to identify the sources of revenue, issue areas, and solutions and recommendations for the problems, which is the anchor point here. These questions will aid in making this research effort relevant.
Nigeria's federalism problem impinges on democratic procedures.
Does democracy survive under a federal system of government? After identifying the flaws, the researcher will make some proposals that, if implemented, will go a long way towards resolving Nigeria's recurrent federalism challenges.
Sources of revenue might serve as one of the study's objectives in the sense that if the federalism government refuses to bring the finance money to pay the workers, the system would suffer.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The issue of federalism in Nigeria has been recurring, and it is gaining traction among academics. The study must be noteworthy in the following ways:
The research will look into Nigeria's federalism challenges.
The study would be noteworthy since it will put to light Nigeria's federalism challenges.
The study is significant because recommendations will be made that will aid in the resolution of some of Nigeria's fiscal federalism difficulties.
serves as a source of information
Graduation has been completed.
1.5 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
The respondents would complete and return around 90% of the questionnaires distributed.
The researcher will put in long hours.
The supervisor will provide complete cooperation.
There is no strike in the University System.
1.6 WORKSHOP PLAN
The research study is broken down into chapters. Introduction, statement of the problem, aims of the study, relevance of the study, plan of work, definition of terms, and Assumption of the Study are all included in chapter One.
The second chapter is a brief review of related literature, the third is a research design and methodology, the fourth is data presentation and analysis, and the final chapter is a summary of the study's findings, conclusion, and recommendations.
1.6 DEFINTION OF TERMS
The following terms will be conceptualised for the sake of this work.
Democracy: refers to a kind of governance in which the people rule. Democracy is a type of government based on the ideals of popular sovereignty, political and economic equality, popular consultation, and majority rule. Eminue Okon, Introduction to Political Science, 2005.
Federal Character: it denotes the notion that every group has an equal opportunity to participate in the country's socioeconomic and sociopolitical life. Wheare (1963:10), the substance of Nigerian federal government administration.
iii. Federalism: a system of government with a constitutional arrangement with some constitutional framework that is purposefully constructed by political architects to maintain unity. Wheare (1963) is a component of Nigerian federalism.
Ethnicity refers to a situation or condition in which a specific group of people is given precedence based on their ethnic regional indicator. It symbolises a sense of belonging to a group of individuals. D. Truman, “The Governance” (1951). Knopt Publishers, New York.