IMPACT OF ACQUIRING SOCIAL VALUES AND OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATIONS AMONG SOCIAL STUDIES STUDENTS IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN JOS NORTH L.G.A, PLATEAU STATE
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is a heterogeneous nation blessed with different people of different ideas, norms, beliefs, attitudes and values that can be of advantage if positively utilized for the benefit of the citizenry. Moral values in Nigeria are in a state of collapse where corruption, embezzlement, armed robbery, kidnapping, wanton destruction of lives and property, injustice, dishonesty, rape, child/ women abuse and trafficking, examination malpractices, drug abuse, cultism, internet and other forms of fraud are the order of the day.
It is believed that Social Studies which has problem-solving approach to issues and societal problems, if its properly taught could go a long way to promote acquisition of moral values among students and the people of the nation in general. Values are essential needs of individuals, family and the society at large. It is to be rated as the embodiment of good traits such as responsibility, reliability, honesty, obedience, faithfulness, truthfulness decency and discipline.
Values are positive ways of life of people that promotes their qualities as individual and as a group. Nakpodia (2010) defined values as those aspects of cultural practices that are cherished with high esteem in the society. Ezegbe (2012) described values are the attitudes an individual or the society holds with respect to worth or desirability. Ezegbe (2012) also noted that values are those things which are considered important upon which weight may be placed.
Adegbite (2014) asserted that the lost of positive values in human environment today have taken a worrisome dimension and if care is not taking, the long term effect on the entire human race will be more injurious than cancer. In the same vein, Okafor (2014) described values as what determines a whole lot of conducts, attitudes and predisposition of human being.
Okafor (2014) also stressed further that societal values influence and affect the total wellbeing of an individual and the nation. Omumi and Jerome (2009) described values as ideas which are shared by people about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable and undesirable. Olutayo and Akanle (2009) also agreed that values are the nexus that connects the past with the present and guides the future. Erinosho (2008) defined values as accepted principles or standards of a person. Hornby (2010) associated high integrity with strict moral values and upright in character. Ndubueze (2013) noted that values indicate a wide range of ideas about the end that human-beings should pursue in live.
Egbue and Alawari (2013) posited that values reflect a person’s sense of right and wrong or what ought to be. Olayiwola (2013) submitted that values can be good or bad depending on what the society cares about. Olayiwola (2013) discovered that Nigerians lack right societal values as a result of poor leadership, lack of moral integrity, culture of mismanagement of wealth, indiscipline, materialism, corruption, selfishness, intolerance and uneven distribution of wealth.
Good value system ultimately produces good and sustainable development while bad value system produces bad, weak and unsustainable societies (Wikipedia 2012). Khilawala (2006) listed empathy, mutual respect, love, loyalty and honesty as the right societal value. Olayiwola (2013) encouraged Nigerians to discard ethnic loyalty, religious intolerance, indiscipline, corruption, selfishness, unfaithfulness and give way to right values for rapid national development.
Nowadays, education plays a significant role in the future plans of young people. Higher levels of education have been associated with a higher prestigious profession, higher income and higher standard of living. Especially a prestigious profession has become a trend in contemporary societies.
A variety of studies claim that there are many factors that influence adolescents’ education and their tendencies to choose a desired profession. Adolescence is a critical period when teenagers are faced with so many options where they have to make their own decision about their future. Through educational processes adolescents gain necessary skills and competencies to decide for their educational and occupational aspirations.
Aspiration is a multifactor concept that can be defined as something from abstract wishes and dreams to the realization of plans and expectations. Aspiration means a great desire to accomplish something high. According to Sirin et al. (2014), aspirations have been defined as the educational and vocational dreams that students have for their future.
According to Hurlock (2013), aspiration means a longing for what one has achieved with advancement on it up to the end. Aspirations begin to be shaped in children’s early years of life, but they can change depending on the environment and experience. Aspirations have a tendency to decline as children mature in response to their growing by understanding of the world and constraints obligated by earlier decisions and achievements (Mau, 2013).
This decline is mainly obvious for those, who face many barriers. Children see their parents and teachers as a great source in shaping their social values, educational and occupational aspirations. Hence the study, impact of acquiring social values and occupational aspirations among social studies students in some selected secondary schools in Jos north L.G.A, plateau state.
1.2. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Increasing and accelerating socio-economic and technological changes in recent years have brought along some social and occupational problems since values could not be transferred to new generations adequately in many societies. Most of the increasing occupational problems among secondary school students are closely related to the level of social values and occupational aspirations acquired.
For instance, social violence and intolerance are problems related to those values. It is believed that the most effective way both to avoid and to decrease such problems that ruin the social order is to undergo efficient teaching process of values. Many other instances damaging global and social peace are observed.
It is understood that most of the people who are responsible for those instances have not received sufficient teaching on values. Teaching values is the most important item of social control mechanisms. Several studies have revealed that secondary school students do experience inadequate and bogus social value leading to incompatible self-concept and occupational aspiration in some regions in Nigeria.
Little or no study has been carried out to investigate the impact of acquiring social values and occupational aspiration among secondary school students in Jos north L.G.A. plateau State. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate to understand the present impact of acquiring social values and occupational aspirations among social studies Secondary School Students in Jos north plateau State
1.3 AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine impact of acquiring social values and occupational aspirations among social studies students in some selected secondary schools in Jos north L.G.A, plateau state. Other specific objectives of the study include;
- To examine whether there are gender differences on acquisition of social values and occupational aspirations among social studies students.
- To examine whether parents’ characteristics affects the acquisition of social values and occupational aspirations of Students during their secondary school studies.
- To examine the impact of acquiring social values and occupational aspirations on social studies students.
- To examine the social values and occupational aspirations of social studies students with respect to different levels of intelligence.
- To examine the relationship between social studies and acquisition of social values and occupational aspirations.
- To examine if Social Studies enhance social values acquisition and occupational aspiration among secondary school students in Jos north L.G.A
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Are there gender differences on acquisition of social values and occupational aspirations among social studies students?
- Do parents’ characteristics affect the acquisition of social values and occupational aspirations of Students during their secondary school studies?
- What is the impact of acquiring social values and occupational aspirations on social studies students?
- What are the social values and occupational aspirations of social studies students with respect to different levels of intelligence?
- What is the relationship between social studies and acquisition of social values and occupational aspirations?
- Does Social Studies enhance social values acquisition and occupational aspiration among secondary school students in Jos north L.G.A?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
- : There are is no significant impact of acquiring social values and occupational aspirations on social studies students.
- : There is a significant impact of acquiring social values and occupational aspirations on social studies students.
- : There is no significant relationship between social studies and acquisition of social values and occupational aspirations..
- : There is a significant relationship between learning of social studies and acquisition of social values and occupational aspirations.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would be of benefit to unveil problem areas in the acquisition of social values and occupational aspirations among secondary school students as well as to proffer recommendations that would benefit both the students and parents in their quest for proper value inculcation and occupational aspirations. The study would also be of immense benefit to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing further studies on the subject matter
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to impact of acquiring social values and occupational aspirations among social studies students in some selected secondary schools in Jos north L.G.A, plateau state.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Social: the term “social” referring among other things to attitudes, orientations, or behaviors which take the interests, intentions, or needs of other people into account (in contrast to anti-social behavior) has played some role in defining the idea or the principle.
For instance terms like social realism, social justice, social constructivism, social psychology, social anarchism and social capital imply that there is some social process involved or considered, a process that is not there in regular, “non-social” realism, justice, constructivism, psychology, anarchism, or capital
Value: the regard that something is held to deserve; the importance, worth, or usefulness of something.
Aspirations: a strong desire to achieve something high or great
Occupational Aspiration: occupational aspiration is one‟s desire for any occupation or profession. One’s preference, liking, willingness, inclination to any particular occupation, job or profession is known as occupational aspiration.
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