Project Materials




Need help with a related project topic or New topic? Send Us Your Topic 





1.1 Historical context of the investigation

According to a survey conducted by the World Health Organization, adolescents are exposed to alcohol on multiple levels of society, particularly through advertising and peer pressure. As a consequence, harmful drinking habits among adolescents and other young people are on the rise. Seventy-one percent of the 73 countries that responded to a World Health Organization (WHO) survey on alcohol and health reported an increase in underage consumption over the previous five years.

And vulnerable young people, such as street youth and sex vendors, are at a much higher risk than the general young population for early initiation of alcohol use and frequent substance consumption. Numerous negative effects of alcohol consumption, such as drug-related accidents and injuries, alcohol-fueled homicide and suicide, drug dependence, and alcohol toxicity, have been well documented.

This brief discusses the effects of substance use on the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. It also discusses policies and programmes aimed at reducing youth alcohol consumption and its negative effects, as well as programmatic responses to substance abuse.

This includes alcohol, nicotine, hashish, cigarettes, codeine, and other harmful substances. When contemplating drug abuse, one must distinguish it from drugs dependence or addiction, which is the physical dependence on drugs for survival.The prevalence of substance abuse among secondary school students and even adults in the community has increased geometrically despite the unrelenting efforts of individuals, organizations, mass media, and governments at various levels

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines a drug as any substance other than those required for normal health maintenance that, when ingested by a living organism, can alter one or more of its functions. (Ghodse, 2003).

According to a 2005 report by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), approximately 200 million individuals, or 5% of the world’s population between the ages of 15 and 65, have used drugs at least once in the past year. Similarly, World Drug (2005) reported that the use of illegal substances has increased in all nations in recent years.

The report goes on to note that the increasing availability of a variety of drugs to an ever-expanding socioeconomic spectrum of consumers is alarming, although narcotics (particularly heroin) and cocaine continue to be the two most problematic substances on a global scale.Abuse of drugs and other related issues are detrimental to the survival and effective operation of human societies.

A substantial number of health risks, untimely fatalities, and accidents have been linked to the actions of individuals under the influence of one or more drugs.Over the past two decades, substance abuse in Kenya has increased dramatically and reached an all-time high; no region of the country is immune to the scourge. (Ngesu et al, 2008).

Many individuals have defined substance abuse in various ways, ignoring its actual causes. In medicine, a drug is any substance with the ability to prevent or treat disease. There are legal and illicit drugs. Drug abuse is the non-therapeutic use of narcotics.

The reproductive system consists of organs that are responsible for procreation. The female reproductive system produces female reproductive cells (eggs or ova) and contains an organ (the uterus) where foetal development occurs; the male reproductive system produces male reproductive cells (sperm) and contains an organ (the penis) that deposits sperm within the female.

The external female reproductive organs are collectively known as the vulva (Latin for “covering”). The vulva protects the urethral and vaginal openings and is extremely sensitive to touch to enhance the female’s sexual pleasure. (Coad &Dunstall, 2005). The vulva consists of the mons pubis, the major and minor genitalia, the clitoris, the structures of the vestibule, and the perineum.

In the male reproductive system, the testes are contained within the scrotum, a sac-like structure. It extends outside the male’s body cavity, keeping the testicles cooler than the rest of the body. Normal human body temperature is too high to produce sperm. Sperm production is facilitated by the lower temperature in the scrotum.


Alcohol and cigarettes are said to be legal, but these substances have also contributed to the introduction of methamphetamine and cocaine. In today’s society, substance abuse has created numerous health issues and dangers. Including miscarriages, mental illness, lung cancer, cultism, gangs, rape cases, and even juvenile delinquency.

The alarming incidence of drug in the southern IjawL.G.A is very common and it effects are so numerous. This study, therefore, attempts to investigate the contributions of family background, peer groups and family cohesion to substance abuse on reproductive health among male and female in Bayelsa State.


The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of substance abuse on reproductive health in the southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. Included among the specific objectives are the following:

i) To investigate the causes of substance abuse among the southern Ijaw of Bayelsa State.

ii) Determine the effects of substance abuse on the reproductive health of expectant women in southern Ijaw, Bayelsa State.

iii) To determine whether there is a significant correlation between substance use and a woman’s reproductive health.

iv) Determine if there are significant differences between male and female substance abuse causes in Southern Ijaw, Bayelsa State.


There is no correlation between substance abuse and a woman’s reproductive health.

There is a significant correlation between substance use and the reproductive health of women.


HO: drug abuse has no significant impact on the reproductive health of expectant women in Southern Ijaw L.G.A.

The abuse of narcotics has a significant impact on the reproductive health of pregnant women in Southern Ijaw L.G.A.

1.5 Importance of the Research

It is anticipated that the findings of this study will be of the uttermost benefit to married men and women, as they will serve as a means of mitigating the effects of drugs on their reproductive system. As a result of its contribution to the existing body of knowledge, the findings will be useful for those who wish to conduct similar research. Finally, the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and other relevant bodies will find the study useful in combating drug abuse and addiction on our campuses and institutions.


This study examined the effects of drug abuse on the health of the southern Ijaw of Bayelsa State in relation to their family origin, family cohesion, peer group influence, and reproductive health. During the course of the investigation, the researcher encountered several limitations, including;
Due to time constraints, the researcher will conduct this study alongside other academic duties. This will consequently reduce the time spent conducting investigation.

Financial constraint: Inadequate funds tend to impede the researcher’s efficacy in locating relevant materials, literature, or information and in collecting data. (internet, questionnaire and interview).


A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that causes a physiological change in the body when inhaled, injected, smoked, ingested, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue.

Abuse:Abuse is the improper utilisation or treatment of an entity, typically for unjust or improper gain.

Drug Dependence: Drug dependence, also known as substance dependence, is an adaptive state that develops in response to repeated drug administration and results in withdrawal when drug use is discontinued.

Legal drugs:Legal drugs, also referred to as legal intoxicants or, more commonly, legal highs, are intoxicating substances that are either wholly legal or not commonly prohibited by various drug laws.

Illegal drugs: Illegal drugs are substances whose possession or use is restricted by the government and which are illegal in certain circumstances. (meaning a person is not allowed to have them).

Stimulants: Stimulants, also known as psych-stimulants, is an umbrella term for a variety of medications, including those that increase body activity, are pleasurable and energizing, and have sympathomimetic effects.

Inhalants are a wide variety of domestic and industrial chemicals whose volatile vapours or pressurised gases are concentrated and inhaled through the nose or mouth to induce intoxication (also known as “getting high”).

Reproductive system or genital system: The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism that function together for sexual reproduction. Numerous nonliving substances, such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones, are also essential reproductive system components.

1.8 Structure of the investigation

This research project is divided into five chapters for simple comprehension: The introduction comprises the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms, and historical context of the study.

The second chapter discusses the theoretical framework upon which the study is based, as well as the relevant literature. The third chapter discusses the study’s research design and methodology. Chapter four focuses on data acquisition, analysis, and findings presentation. The fifth chapter provides a summary, conclusion, and study recommendations.

Need help with a related project topic or New topic? Send Us Your Topic 


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.