GENETIC evaluation OF PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY IN JAPANESE QUAIL
GENETIC EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD BIOCHEMISTRY IN JAPANESE QUAIL
In order to assess the growth, reproductive, and blood biochemical parameters of parents and their young Japanese quail, a study was carried out in a Northern Guinea Savannah region. Six hundred and thirty Day-old Chicks (doc) and two hundred and twenty Day-old Chicks (DOC) were employed in total for the base generation and the first generation, respectively.
The weights were taken using a sensitive (0.01 g) digital scale. The body measurements recorded were the 4-week and 8-week body weights, as well as the average and relative growth rates.
The age at sexual maturity, weight at sexual maturity, egg weight at sexual maturity, average egg weight, egg laid at the 11th week of age, and the ratio of egg weight to 4-week body weight were the reproductive parameters examined in female quails that were kept separately.
In the 6th-week blood biochemistry study, glucose (Glu) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were tested in accordance with Trinder (1969) and Kind and King (1954), respectively. Sexual dimorphism was seen within and between generations for body weight. In the base and first generation, there was no significant difference between the genders for BW4 (P>0.01), although the females had a greater BW8 than the males (P0.01).
Additionally, the BW4 and BW8 of the base generation were significantly (P0.01) greater than those of the first generation. The observed variation in growth parameters had an impact on the effectiveness of reproduction. The base generation's faster developing birds were significantly (P>0.01) younger at sexual maturity but significantly (P0.01) heavier at that time in terms of body weight and egg weight.
According to the study on blood biochemistry, there were no significant differences between males and females in each generation for the relevant blood parameter; however, the first generation had significantly higher Glu levels than the base generation but significantly lower ALP levels.
When compared to the males in both generations, the females had a larger coefficient of variation for the blood biochemistry. For this investigation, it was found that growth rate and ASM have a positive phenotypic correlation coefficient.
While ALP and Glu are negatively associated, reproductive characteristics are typically positively correlated. In comparison to blood biochemistry and reproductive features, growth traits have a stronger inherent potential to transmit information, according to repeatability estimations of their size.
Coturnix coturnix Japonica, also known as the Japanese quail, is a significant livestock in Nigeria and many other countries. It is raised as the smallest species of bird for the production of meat and eggs (Panda and Singh, 1990).
When compared to chickens, their production is encouraged since they are more widely accepted, need less time and space, develop quickly, reach sexual maturity earlier, have larger laying capacity, have shorter generation intervals, and are disease resistant.
These characteristics of coturnixs have made it easier to produce and raise them for commercial purposes, mostly for meat in Europe, eggs in Japan, and frequently as dual-purpose birds in other Asian nations (Minvielle, 1998).
They are also extensively used in numerous investigations, including those involving growth, breeding, and selection (Kayang et al., 2004) as well as laboratory research (Baumgartner, 1994). It is raised commercially in Nigeria for the purpose of producing eggs and is used for research.
Numerous scientists have concentrated their genetic study on enhancing exclusively economic qualities. Because selection, breeding, and genetic improvement have a noticeable impact on blood biochemical characteristics,
and because researchers use blood biochemical parameters as markers in livestock species to improve productivity and reproductive performance, a broader perspective on improved and efficient genetic study has emerged (Emmerson, 2003; Nguyen and Tran, 2003).
Serum proteins, enzymes, and bilirubin have all been recognised as genetic indicators in farm animals (Pagot, 1992). The following studies have demonstrated a correlation between certain blood parameters and the performance of poultry birds: plasma The association between growth and blood constituents in Japanese quail by Faraht et al.
(2010), the fluctuation of plasma constituents at various ages of female Japanese quail (Hassan, 2010), and alkaline phosphatase activity in Rhode Island birds (Orunmuyi et al., 2007) are only a few examples.
For the right design of breeding and selection studies, it is necessary to understand the relationship between blood parameters (glucose and alkaline phosphatase) and healthy or diseased conditions, production, and reproduction.
Estimates of heritability, repeatability, and trait correlation can be used to determine the methodologies that can be used to evaluate genetic links. The most accurate way to forecast the genetic advancement attained is to look at a trait's heritability (Caron et al., 1990).
The rate of genetic advancement increases as the heritability of the trait under selection increases. In Japanese quail, Faraht et al. (2010) reported a range of 0.45 to 0.51 for the heritability of blood constituents, while Kocak et al. (1995), Abdel Fattah et al. (2006), and Saatci et al. (2006) reported a range of 0.3 to 0.72 for the heritability of body weight.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This research has been made necessary by the critical need for more, site-specific research on genetic estimates for observable qualities and the blood biochemistry that underlies them in Japanese quail.
Certain baseline information/data are needed in order to breed, choose, or enhance the performance of these birds. In order to learn more about some genetic characteristics of the Japanese quail, this study was created to assess the association between performance and blood biochemical indicators in these birds.
Hypothesis Alternative (Ha). On the basis of sex, age, and generation, there are considerable differences in the growth and metabolic characteristics of Japanese Quails.
1. To identify sex- and generation-specific variations in growth and a few biochemical measures in Japanese quail.
2. To estimate genetic characteristics in Japanese quail that relate to growth, reproduction, and some metabolic parameters.