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POLITICAL SCIENCE

CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES AND HEADTEACHERS ADMINISTRATIVE EFFECTIVENESS IN IKOT EKPENE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

CONFLICT STRATEGIES AND HEADTEACHERS ADMINISTRATIVE EFFECTIVENESS IN IKOT EKPENE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

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CONFLICT RESOLUTION STRATEGIES AND HEADTEACHERS ADMINISTRATIVE EFFECTIVENESS IN IKOT EKPENE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

CHAPITRE ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Research

Different people define conflict differently. It is a type of friction, dispute, or discord that occurs within a group when the acts of one or more members of one group are resisted or undesirable to one or more members of another group.

It can be defined as reciprocal animosity in inter-human relationships, manifested as distrust, injustice, superiority, strikes, withdrawal of love and support, outright violence, or even the loss of life and property.

Conflicts do arise at the interpersonal, inter-group, institutional, or intra-institutional level between staff and non-staff, students or and school authority, school and community, and so on. Conflicts can also arise inside peer groups, families, and organisations.

Routine group contact is initially disrupted by an initial conflict, which is frequently caused by differences of opinion, disagreements among members, or a lack of resources

. In certain situations, this period of conflict escalation gives way to a stage of conflict resolution, after which the group can eventually return to ordinary group engagement.

Conflicts are rarely viewed as constructive; yet, in particular settings, such as sports competition, moderate amounts of conflict can be viewed as mutually beneficial, encouraging understanding, tolerance, learning, and effectiveness. Sophia Jowett distinguishes between content conflicts, in which people disagree about how to handle a specific issue,

and relational conflicts, in which people disagree about one another, noting that content conflicts can be beneficial, increasing motivation and stimulating discussion, whereas relational conflicts reduce performance,

loyalty, satisfaction, and commitment and cause people to be irritable, negative, and suspicious. Disagreements in viewpoints and opinions on a specific task are the source of task conflict.

This has an impact on individuals, groups, and the achievement of social, political, economic, religious, and educational aims and objectives. Conflicts are an inevitable aspect of life, and hence an inevitable component of school life.

The manner in which disagreements are managed in an institution determines the efficiency of that institution to a considerable extent. Conflicts can also be seen as a reality of management and organisational behaviour, with ties to power and politics.

Conflict Resolution (Disambiguation) is another word for reconciliation. It is defined as the strategies and practises used to facilitate the peaceful resolution of conflict and punishment. The terms “conflict resolution” and “dispute resolution” can be used interchangeably.

The use of nonviolent resistance assessed by conflicted parties in an attempt to promote effective resolution might be conceived of as v resolution. Conflicts have an impact on organisational goals because they cause tension, hostility, and other negative consequences when they are not resolved properly.

Conflict resolution has become critical for goal achievement. Depending on the context, the term “conflict” can have a number of different meanings. Conflict, according to Rahim (1992), is an interaction process that manifests as compatibility, disagreement, or difference inside or between social entities (i.e. individuals, groups, organisations).

Rahim (1995) defines compromise as a behaviour that exists between co-operation and aggressiveness. This administrator engages in give and take and may make a number of concessions.

According to Bailey (1991), a key talent for school administrators to master is the ability to successfully minimise and resolve conflict. In his study, Oyebade (1994) identified conflict as unavoidable and a fact of life.

There had been a series of disagreements in the primary school system, resulting in a slow but consistent disruption of academic activities. The nature and sorts of confrontations differ from school to school, as well as between staff and students.

The kind and type of conflict may influence the conflict resolution approach used, such as avoidance, dominance, accommodation, compromise, and consensus, as proposed by Mary Parker Follett (1926) and Kerzner (1998). Conflict is defined by Daihrendorf (1995) as “tension within the organisational system.”

Tensions can be detected by paying attention to possible incompatibilities between departments, members of staff, or employees, as well as the intricacies of the communication network and the organisational structure itself.

The way disagreements are resolved in the school system has a great impact on the administrative success of the school, and thus the achievement of educational goals and objectives at the level of education. In order to resolve the issue, school administrators employ the method that is best suited to the situation.

The techniques used may differ depending on the nature of the dispute or the cause of the disagreement, but when conflict along lines is correctly addressed, a beneficial conclusion can occur. Conflict resolution through peaceful, nonviolent means has been practised for a long time.

There are ways for peaceful dispute settlement that are mandated by institutions or organisations. Individual, family, group, organisation, community, and worldwide strategies are all offered.

The procedure of determining the administrative effectiveness of the headteachers during a conflict situation is to apply several conflict resolution strategies and determine how each predicts administrative effectiveness.

According to the study, “appropriate resolution strategy in a given situation requires accurate identification of both the conflict origin and participants and their relationship, in order to apply the most effective resolution techniques” . Conflicts, on the other hand, have become an integral part of organisational life and may be found in primary schools and various levels of education.

It also means that when conflict continued to appear, study in various dimensions would be conducted in order to discover the best strategies for meaningful conflicts. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the extent to which conflict resolution tactics predict administrative performance among primary school principals in Ikot Ekpene.

In other words, how well do conflict resolution tactics predict the administrative performance of primary school principals in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area? The question requires an assessment of some of the tactics deemed crucial for predicting the administrative effectiveness of elementary school principals.

Conflict resolution techniques are the processes of enabling peace, avoiding conflict through negotiation, and organising to settle conflict (Baron, 2006). Conflict resolution is also the process of decreasing conflict's negative and destructive potential through a variety of techniques and by working with and through the parties involved in the conflict (John, 1990).

Conflict Resolution tactics are the various approaches used by school administrators to resolve conflicts. The ability and competency of school principals in conflict resolution would greatly influence the administrative performance of the school system.

1.2Statement of the Problem

Controversies, discords, frictions, exchanges, and distinctions inherent in human nature are highlighted during conflict. Interpersonal, inter-departmental, staff-management, staff-pupil, and pupil-pupil conflicts must be efficiently managed and resolved for the benefit of the school system.

School principals may have used conflict resolution tactics such as suspension, confrontation, structural change, and delay approaches to achieve successful administration, but all are risky.

According to Udoho (2008), a lack of awareness about conflict resolution procedures often leads to school administrators using inefficient methods to resolve conflicts in their institutions and failing to attract critical resources.

Costly disruptions frequently occur, which have a detrimental impact on the teaching and learning process and might hamper the achievement of educational goals and objectives in primary schools.

The implementation of and compulsory education in both primary and in Akwa Ibom State by the State administration has mostly resulted in changes in the attitude of students.

Schools have become more complicated, with parents and other stakeholders in the educational system frequently confronting school administrators and teachers with allegations of their children's unfavourable attitudes. Pupils make things too tough by disobeying, creating noise, pinching, engaging in violence, and fighting, all of which jeopardise educational goals and objectives.

As a result, the problems of this study are to investigate how conflict resolution tactics can predict administrative performance of primary school headteachers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

1.3 Objective OF The Study

The research looked into the conflict resolution tactics and administrative efficacy of primary school principals in the Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.

The study's objectives were to:

Determine how the use of avoidance as a dispute resolution approach predicts the administrative performance of primary school principals.

Determine how dominance as a conflict resolution approach predicts primary school principals' administrative performance.

Determine how the use of accommodation as a conflict resolution tactic predicts the administrative performance of primary school principals.

Determine how the use of compromise as a conflict resolution tactic predicts the administrative performance of primary school principals.

1.4 Significance of the Research

The study is extremely beneficial to a large number of people while also adding to the body of knowledge. School principals might benefit from conflict resolution skills while dealing with both staff and students in conflict situations.

Such knowledge is supposed to shape their attitude and build a conducive teaching-learning atmosphere in schools; additionally, headteachers will be better directed in making decisions on conflict concerns in the school system.

The study will also reveal the degree of the association between conflict resolution tactics and administrative effectiveness of headteachers in the Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.

Students and teachers will benefit from the study because they will obtain knowledge of conflict resolution tactics by participating in the seminar for which this study is being prepared.

When parents and stakeholders are exposed to this information, they will benefit as well. The study will help the researcher because it will act as a for future research in relevant areas.

1.5 Research Questions

To guide the investigation, the following research questions were developed.

What is the extent to which avoidance as a dispute resolution approach predicts primary school principals' administrative effectiveness?

To what extent does domination as a dispute resolution approach predict primary school principals' administrative effectiveness?

What is the extent to which accommodation as a dispute resolution approach predicts primary school headteacher administrative effectiveness?

To what extent does compromise as a conflict resolution method predict primary school principals' administrative effectiveness?

1.6 Proposals for Hypotheses

To guide the research, the following null hypotheses were developed.

Avoidance as a conflict resolution tactic has no substantial impact on the administrative performance of principals.

Domination as a dispute resolution method does not predict administrative effectiveness in primary schools.

Accommodation as a dispute resolution method does not significantly predict elementary school headteacher administrative effectiveness.

Compromise as a conflict resolution method does not significantly predict administrative effectiveness in primary schools.

1.7 Scope of the Research

This research focuses on dispute resolution tactics and the administrative efficacy of teachers in the Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. The study takes into account the variables of avoidance, dominance, accommodation, and compromise.

1.8 Definitions of Terms

The definitions of terms used in the study are provided below.

Conflict Resolution: These are the ways or techniques used by primary school principals to resolve conflict. The following are five (5) conflict resolution approaches: Avoidance, Domination, Accommodation, Compromise, and Consensus are all forms of avoidance.

Avoidance: A non-cooperative strategy to conflict settlement. A circumstance in which the headteacher can avoid controversy by ignoring disagreement and being impartial.

Domination: This strategy is based on assertion and uncooperative attitude. The principal remains focused on conflict resolution without conceding and fails to recognise the usefulness of alternatives.

Accommodation: This is a strategy in which the principal strives to protect personal ties even when it benefits project objectives.

Compromise: The strategy relates to cooperative and forceful behaviours. The headteacher seeks to strike a balance between personal relationships and may make a number of compromises.

Headteachers are primary school administrators who direct the smooth operation of the schools.

Administrative Effectiveness: This refers to the school's seamless operation with an acceptable tone for instructors and students to carry out their functions properly.

CHAPITRE TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED WORKS

This chapter will be divided into the following sections:

(1) Theoretical Foundation

(2) Theoretical Framework

(3) Framework for Empirical Research

(4) Review of Literature Summary

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