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Chapter one


1.1 Background of the Study

Human rights violations in Nigeria and around the world have been a long-standing issue. Human beings’ fundamental human rights are enshrined in various countries’ constitutions around the world. But there are many government policies. These rights are restricted by laws and other people’s rights, among other things.

It is critical that an individual has a sense of belonging and does not feel as if he or she is being hanged, and a country where people believe their interests are being fought for in government tends to thrive better than one in which they feel neglected and used.

The researchers conducted this study with that goal in mind.

The notion that all men and women are created equal has become the cornerstone of all democratic nations. It has been noticed that people’s opinions based on vices, personal beliefs, or social standing make achieving equal rights a never-ending effort.

The existence, legitimacy, and consistency of human rights are still debated in politics and philosophy. Human rights, however, are defined by both state and international law.

However, there is a wide range of how human rights norms are viewed and articulated in different contexts, as well as how they are enforced in different countries.

The concept of human rights has been examined from various political, sociological, and philosophical perspectives. According to Forsythe (2000), human rights are the supposed fundamental rights and liberties to which all humans are entitled.

According to Hill (2006), social contract theories and their understanding of natural rights serve as the foundation for human rights philosophy.

Murray (2006), from an anarchy-capitalist perspective, defines human rights as a circumstance in which a person’s ownership rights to his body and genuine lawfully rights are neither invaded or violated by another person, group of people, or the government.

Human rights is a sociopolitical idea that considers humans to have universal rights, or states, regardless of legal jurisdiction or other localising variables such as ethnicity and country (Wikipedia, 2006).

In a domestic context, the notion of human rights refers to safeguards for individuals against the government’s arbitrary use of authority in the following areas.

1. The health of individuals

2. Individual freedom and autonomy.

3. Representation of human interests in government.

Furthermore, the concept of human rights refers to a restricted range of values that should be available for execution by individuals, other persons, or the government. These ideals are explicitly declared in the constitution and are founded on the legal and political traditions of each country, including Nigeria.

According to Wright (2006), these rights include the right to life, the right to an adequate standard of living, freedom from torture and other forms of maltreatment, freedom of religion and expression, and the right to participate in cultural and political life.

Fundamental human rights can be defined as basic universal inalienable social rights that should be enjoyed by all human beings regardless of religion, race, ethnicity, gender, or status. In other words, fundamental human rights are those that apply to all human beings and citizens of a country.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Fundamental human rights can be violated in a variety of ways, including the rights of others, government policies, police, terrorist groups, war and civil disturbance, and so on.

Individual rights are abused on a regular basis in Nigeria by police, military, and other law enforcement agencies that refuse to give victims a fair trial before sending them to jail, arrest persons who did not commit a crime,

and beat innocent civilians without consideration. Terrorist groups also engage in kidnapping and murdering innocent citizens. Furthermore, many people are unaware of the constitutional provisions that protect their rights. On this basis, the researchers have decided to conduct this investigation.


Human rights violations in Nigeria have been increasingly prevalent in recent years. These crimes include those committed by Boko Haram, police, and the military, among others. The study’s primary goal is to explain how the print media in Nigeria covers human rights issues.

The goal of this study is to help identify the following:

1. The fundamental human rights of Nigeria as outlined in the 1999 constitution.

2. How can the Nigerian police and administration help citizens safeguard their rights and achieve their aspirations as free citizens?

3. Why are human rights violations so prevalent in Nigeria, as well as a feasible solution and its economic implications.


The primary goal of this research is to know

1. What is the Nigerian government’s role in mitigating the rapid development of human rights violations?

2. Why are Nigeria’s wealthiest not subject to the same laws as the poor?

3. Is the Nigerian police actually assisting to enforce the law, and if so, why is there favouritism in doing so?

1.5 Significance of the Study

The purpose of this study is to raise awareness about the benefits of well-implemented fundamental human rights and their implications for a healthy society.

This is crucial since many leaders may be unaware or ignorant of the significance of these rights and their overall contribution to a country’s well-being.

This work can also be used as a reference for the study of human rights violations in Nigeria.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This research focuses on the coverage of human rights violations in Nigeria by the military dictatorship (a study of Sanni Abacha from 1993 to 1999).

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