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Chapter 1

background of The study

1.1 Introduction

One of the issues Africa has today is how to create chances for the continent’s over 200 million youngsters so that they can live decent lives and contribute to their countries’ socioeconomic and political growth (G. Genyi, 2016).

According to the United Nations (2010), Africa’s population in 2011 was anticipated to be 1.05 billion, and it is expected to quadruple by 2050. Approximately 70% of Africa’s population is 30 years or younger.

In 2011, youths, defined here as those aged 15 to 35, accounted for 21 percent of Africa’s population of more than 1 billion people, with 42 percent being under the age of 15. Females account for slightly more than half of the African youth population,

while rural dwellers outnumber urban dwellers. With such a big proportion under the age of 15, Africa’s young population is predicted to rise in the next years, but the youth population in other areas of the world is expected to diminish (Gyimah- Brempong and Kimenyi, 2013:2).

Nigeria has struggled to establish a viable and durable democracy since its independence in 1960, but its dismal politics, characterised by a consistent inability to conduct credible and transparent elections in which its citizens have access to effectively protected opportunities to exercise their franchise but not in the selection of their leaders,

has rendered the agenda of democratic sustainability largely a mirage.. This explains why so many democratic transition attempts have failed (Dudley, 1982; Akinsanya, 2005; Agbaje, 2005).

Youth political engagement refers to young people’s involvement in responsible and challenging political action that addresses genuine human needs and provides possibilities for planning and/or decision-making that affects others in the political system.

That is, political involvement entails recognising and cultivating young people’s qualities, interests, and abilities by providing genuine opportunities for them to participate in decision-making that impacts their everyday lives (Aniagoh, 2016).

Youth political participation promotes a sense of citizenship and makes policy processes more transparent and accountable to youth. At the same time, it assists adolescents in developing self-confidence,

a sense of initiative, and acquiring and testing job skills such as communication, negotiation, and teamwork in a practical setting (EACEA, 2010/03).

1.2 A Statement of the Problem

A detailed examination of the level of political involvement and training of Nigerian youths reveals that they have not been actively participating in the process of sharpening the political system.

It is regrettable that, despite the enormous number of adolescents and the impact they can have on national progress, they have been consigned to the background as elderly politicians use them for various vices.

Nigeria is a living example of certain youngsters being employed as political thugs and touts during campaigns and elections. For example, the juvenile criminal organisation known as ‘Yan Shara’ has been carrying out its wicked operations, particularly in the areas of Kawo, Unguwan Kudu, and Tudun Wada.

These criminals use traditional weaponry to commit many social vices, and their actions typically increase significantly during campaign or election seasons. In other cases, they are hired as personal bodyguards for corrupt politicians.

While adolescents are used as campaign agents to mobilise crowds at rallies to yell political slogans and to win elections, they are ultimately consigned to the background.

Even positions that they naturally merit, like as national youth leader, are awarded to adults like Ibrahim Dasuki Jalo, 46 years old! That is considerably beyond the capabilities of a young person.

Youths’ dreams and aspirations are frequently dashed following elections. All campaign and pre-election promises of critical appointments and jobs made by so-called elderly politicians, which primarily encourage teenagers to engage in often illegal activities during campaign rallies, go mainly unmet after elections.

It is worth noting that these promises are rarely kept. However, because youths have a future ahead of them, they must work hard to seize such possibilities in order to ensure their place in public life. It would be prudent to include young people on various advisory boards, commissions, ministries, and other organisations.


Is young political participation influenced by their orientation?

· What variables impact Nigerian youth’s political participation?

· How much has the administration promoted youth political engagement in Kaduna North Local administration Area, Kaduna State?

1.4 Study Objectives

The aims of this investigation are as follows:

• To prepare youth for active political participation.

• Identify barriers to young participation in Nigerian political growth.

The study aims to assess Kaduna North Local Government’s level of encouraging youth political involvement in Kaduna state.

1.5 Research proposals

· Political orientation influences youths’ political participation.

Poverty hinders young people’s political participation.

· The government’s lack of support impacts youth political engagement.

1.6 Significance of The Study

As an intellectual endeavour, the importance of this form of research is so immense that it cannot be comprehended with or confined to words.

The purpose of this study is to reveal the nature and character of the Nigerian political system, which will then be used as a preamble to analysing the nature and character of politics in Kaduna North local government area of Kaduna state, with a focus on the level of participation of youngsters in politics.

1.7 The scope and limitations of the study.

This study will focus on the political participation of youths in Kaduna North Local Government Area, Kaduna State, between 2015 and 2017.

1.8 Research Methodology

“Speifel (2000) defined primary data collection as firsthand information from the original source.” The study will use both primary and secondary data collection methods.

Such information is typically gathered from the field via interviews and questionnaires, surveys, or the recording of formal transactions. Questionnaires would be prepared and delivered to respondents for this study, and the researcher would then collect and analyse the results.

A review of related literature would serve as a secondary source of data. In other words, the researcher investigated published and unpublished works, journals, newspapers, magazines, and seminar collections relevant to the topic; additionally, the researcher wants to analyse this article using the qualitative research approach.

Qualitative research, which is used to find trends of thoughts and opinions and also delve further into the topic, this method varies from structured to semi-structured procedures, some of which are “focus group discussion and interviews”

1.9 Definition of Terms


According to the Nigerian National Youth Policy (2009), youth are all young men and women between the ages of 18 and 35 who are citizens of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Political participation

According to Eakin (2010), political participation is the process by which an individual participates in his society’s political life and has the ability to decide what the society’s common goals are and how best to achieve these goals.

1.10 – Chapter Organisation

The study is divided into five chapters. Chapter one discusses the study’s backdrop, which includes an introduction, a statement of the problem, research questions, study objectives, a proposition, the scope and limitations of the investigation, a research technique, the relevance of the research study, and a definition of concepts.

The second chapter offers a survey of the associated literature as well as a theoretical framework. The third chapter discusses the evolution of Kaduna North Local Government in Kaduna State.

The fourth chapter will discuss data presentation, analysis, and interpretation. The fifth chapter will contain the study’s summary, conclusion, and recommendations.

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