APPRAISAL OF THE TRANSNATIONAL COOPERATION AND THE NIGER – delta REGION ON PEACE
APPRAISAL OF THE TRANSNATIONAL COOPERATION AND THE NIGER – DELTA REGION ON PEACE
A transnational corporation is a company, firm, or enterprise that has its headquarters in a developed country but also works in other developed and developing countries. They are found all over the planet.
They are involved in mining, tea, rubber, coffee, and cocoa plantation, oil extraction and refining, manufacturing for domestic and foreign markets, and so forth.
Their operations also include banking, insurance, shipping, and hotels, among other things. Not only do multinational firms dominate worldwide investment, but also international production, trade, finance, and technology.
1.0 GENERAL FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
Transnational corporations (TNCs) are a defining aspect of today's international private enterprise (IPE). Transnational Corporations compete in regional and worldwide marketplaces and engage in foreign direct investment, which is highly sought after by natural governments looking for jobs, technology, and economic growth resources.
Transnational businesses have always been problematic because of their seeming dominance and because their “global reach” makes them difficult to regulate or control by nation-states.
Many researchers have advocated for a formal international regime to manage state-to-state interactions, similar to how the World commercial Organisation governs international commercial flows. Recent attempts to negotiate such a system,
however, have failed to overcome transnational firms' and states' self-interest and anxieties. Transnational corporation investment flows have recently decreased, and competition for transnational markets and investment has increased, putting additional strain on states and multinational firms.
The central role of transnational firms is one of the twentieth century's distinguishing aspects. Transnational firms and their competition in regional and worldwide marketplaces have an impact on international trade, global finance, national security, and knowledge and technology.
However, before we begin, we must first define some terms. Businesses that compete in global marketplaces have been given several labels over time and in various fields of study. They were previously referred to as ‘international businesses' to distinguish them from firms that only worked in local or national markets.
For many years, the term multinational corporation (MNC) was used to describe a company that functioned in multiple national markets. Transnational corporation (TNC) has become the recognised word as global markets and industrial structures have emerged.
The word “trans” means “beyond,” and the markets in which these enterprises operate are clearly beyond or transcend national markets. We will be familiar with their business,
the things they manufacture and sell, and the marketplaces in which they reside. There are approximately 65,000 multinational firms in the world now, with 850,000 international affiliates. They collectively employ around 54 million people.
As a result, this study on transnational cooperation and the Niger – Delta region on peace was conducted.
1.2 STTEMENT OF THE research PROBLEM
Many individuals believe that transnational firms are extremely influential because they are such massive organisations and because their FDI flows influence the global allocation of investment and technology. Some people even claim that transnational corporations are as strong as or more powerful than nations.
One frequently quoted “fact” is that 51 of the top 100 “economic entities” are corporations, with the remaining 49 being countries. This statistic is based on tables that compare countries' gross domestic products with total corporate revenues.
Transnational businesses are larger than all but the largest nation-states and, as a result, must wield enormous authority. Of course, this message is likewise bogus. Making this comparison is to misunderstand both what a transnational firm is and what a state is.
Technically, comparing countries and transnational firms in this manner is like comparing apples to oranges. This comparison compares multinational businesses and nation-states solely in monetary terms, omitting several elements that are far more important.
This emphasis on one aspect, money, is ironic given that many critics of multinational firms accuse them of ignoring vital non-monetary considerations such as security or the environment. States have land, establish laws, have sovereignty, citizens, have armies and fleets.
They also have legitimacy, which means that the world community recognises their right to make major social decisions. Transnational firms lack all of these characteristics unless you believe that employees and customers are the same as national citizens. As a result, there is a need to conduct study on transnational collaboration and the Niger – Delta region's peace.
1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study's goal is to look at transnational collaboration and the Niger-Delta region's impact on peace from the 1990s to the present. The research will also examine the activities of transnational corporations in Nigeria over the last 20 years,
their problems and achievements, as well as the factors that impede effective and efficient operation in Nigeria, with the goal of proposing operational solutions for the smooth operation of transnational corporations in Nigeria.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary goal of this research is to investigate the impact of transnational cooperation and the Niger-Delta region on peace.
This study's particular goals are as follows:
Determine the impact of multinational corporations on the Niger Delta
To propose potential solutions for a more effective and efficient connection between multinational corporations and the Niger Delta.
To determine if transnational corporations help or hinder peace in the Niger Delta.
To examine economic measures that will be responsive enough to strengthen economic union between multinational corporations and the Niger Delta.
To investigate the current pattern of transnational business investment in Nigeria.
1.5 THE STUDY'S OBJECTIVE
Because the subject under investigation is a global one, this type of research should preferably have a continental or international reach. However, due to logistical and other constraints, the study has been limited to Nigeria and the impact of multinational corporations from the 1990s to the present.
Nigeria has tripped and continues to stumble from one transnational corporate activity to the next in order to grow and expand its economic ties with a number of transnational firms.
Despite the fact that many countries face the issues of transnational corporations. Because of its concern for the Niger Delta's difficulties, the research chose the Niger Delta as its domain.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Certain difficulties were faced in conducting this study, as is typical of most human endeavours. The fact that the researcher is conducting a scientific study for the first time is an understandable impediment. The researcher was also attempting to prepare for his exams while conducting this investigation. As a result, taking the exam was a barrier to my studies.
Furthermore, the researcher encountered a significant challenge in his investigation due to a scarcity of research literature. There was a challenge obtaining appropriate and useful information and materials required for a full study job, particularly with regard to the topic.
Furthermore, the researcher faced a significant financial constraint. Although material on the subject is widely available on the internet, there was a financial barrier to accessing and printing it.
Because of the aforementioned constraints, the research was restricted to the topic under consideration. However, until a more detailed and comprehensive study is conducted, the topics of this study will remain as simple as feasible for future research work.
1.7 significance OF THE STUDY
The goal of this research will be to provide a platform for the strengthening of transnational corporations' operations in the Niger Delta and Nigeria in general, as well as to critically analyse the prospects and challenges of transnational corporations and propose possible solutions for the way forward between transnational corporations and their host countries.
Although global corporations have encountered numerous problems, including political instability, security issues in host nations, and host nation exploitation and political intervention by transnational corporations. The benefits of economic cooperation, investment, trade links, technical and financial aid have far surpassed the challenges listed above.
Furthermore, the research will lay the groundwork for a single economic strategy that is responsive enough to enhance economic unity between multinational firms and host countries.
As a result, it will serve as a source of reference and research information for scholars, students, and professionals alike. This person will gain significantly from the information contained in this book,
while the Nigerian government will now be able to draw out favourable economic policies to follow and promote economic growth and development in the country.
The following are the propositions that will guide our intended research work:
The current investment trend of multinational corporations ii. Transnational corporations help host countries' economic growth and development, as well as foreign direct investment (FDI).
Transnational Corporations erode unemployment difficulties by dominating manufacturing and investment.
Transnational corporations are so massive that all but a few states are dwarfed.
Transnational firms invest in developing countries to take advantage of their cheap labour and natural resources.
1.9 THE RESEARCHH METHODOLOGY
The descriptive content analysis of secondary data was used to conduct the study for this thesis. Documents from multinational corporations such as the mid-term report, annual reports,
and the transnational corporate draught treaty were used as secondary sources. Books, journal articles, periodicals, published theses, and unpublished materials were used to acquire data.
1.10 THEORY FRAMEWORK
Theories are collections of logically related symbols that describe what we believe happens in reality. Because they apply facts, models, or laws concerning a phenomenon, they give logical foundations for our study activity.
The world is rapidly becoming a global village, and for Nigeria to maximise the benefits of globalisation, it must integrate its economy and harmonise its economic policies.
However, functionalism theory will be used for the sake of this study. This idea advocates for non-political cooperation before establishing political union. Transnational businesses were formed for “economic” reasons, but have now expanded to include various sectorial approaches.
Many people believe that most international organisations are situated in the North and have relocated manufacturing to the less developed south to take advantage of cheaper labour or natural resources, however the facts do not support this assumption.
This explains why multinational corporations begin by establishing themselves in host countries, liberalising trade, harmonising commerce, engaging in import and export, and other financial policies for better monetary union before pursuing political unity.
1.11 DEFINITION OF TERMS
FUNCTIONALISM: This is an example of multinational cooperation.
Communications, trade, travel, health, and environmental protection are just a few examples. Cooperation on the above topics, other than politics, is believed to create cooperation and build confidence between nations and transnational enterprises to the point where rivalry is abolished.
TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATION: A company headquartered in one state that has associated branches or subsidiaries in other states.
1.12 OUTLINE/STRUCTURE OF THE CHAPTER
This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter introduces the topic matter, which evaluates the statement of the research problem, the purpose of the investigation, and the objectives of the study.
The scope of the study, the limitations of the study, the significance of the study, the propositions, the methodology of the investigation, the theoretical framework, the conceptual definition, and the chapter overview are all included. The second chapter is a literature study that looks at the concept of Nigeria and its influences.
Corporations that operate on a global scale. In chapter three, attempts were made to analyse in depth the perspective and origins of multinational businesses and their effect in Nigeria, as well as the patterns of transnational corporations' operations in Nigeria.
The fourth chapter discusses Nigeria and the influence of transnational corporations, as well as the benefits and drawbacks of transnational corporations in Nigeria. The research is summarised in Chapter 5 with operational recommendations.