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THE RATE OF PATIENTS WITH STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIA

THE OF PATIENTS WITH STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIA

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THE RATE OF PATIENTS WITH STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIA

ABSTRACT

Based on the fact that pneumonia is one of the most common illnesses of the elderly and children worldwide, the prevalence of streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia patients was studied utilising the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu as a case study.

A total of 50 samples were taken. 12 (24%) of the samples were sputum, while the remaining 38 (76%) were nasopharyngeal swabs from children who were unable to generate sputum using sterilised disposable swab sticks. Twelve patients (24%) were adults, while 38 (76%) were children under the age of.

29 patients (58%) were male, whereas 21 (42%) were female. agar and chocolate agar plates were used to isolate germs. This was followed by their biochemical testing. Five distinct organisms were isolated. They have 13 (26%) staphylococcus pneumonia, 17 (34%) staphylococcus viridian, and 3(6%) additional staphylococcus species. 6(12%) staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus specie 1(2%) and non-significant staphylococci and streptococci growth 10(20%). This study found that the prevalence of staphylococcus aureus is higher than that of streptococcus pneumonia, which was previously thought to be the most prevalent bacteria causing pneumonia.

CHAPITRE ONE

1. INTRODUCTION

Bacterial an infection can cause severe infection in children, the elderly, and other people with weakened immune systems. People who are more susceptible to infection due to an overall impairment of the immune response, such as Hiv infection, chronic disease, advanced age, and or function of defence mechanisms (for example, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd), tumours, inhaled toxins, and aspiration (Stephen 2002).

The trachea, bronchi, and lungs are normally free of communal and potentially pathogenic bacteria, but when their reference is disturbed, they are vulnerable to invasion by organisation from the throat or nose (fraser, 1996). Pneumonia is one of the most common infections of the lower respiratory tract (Jawetz, et, 2001).

1.1 THE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA

The inflammation of the tendons is termed as pneumonia. Pneumonia is defined as the filling of alveoli with pus and fluid as a result of pneumonia (Naster et al 2001). Macrophages are numerous in the long issues and reality move into the alveoli and airways to engage infection agents, thus preventing pneumonia from developing, but when the defence mechanism is disrupted, causative agents are more likely to enviable the host (Yolande and Broduem 1987).

Pneumonia is an infection caused by various bacteria such as streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus aureus, pneumococci, and others that can lead to death. For example, William Henry Harrison, the first president of the United States, contracted pneumonia during his inauguration in 1841 and died after only 31 days in office.

Other noteworthy people who died from pneumonia include Sir Francis Bacon in 1626, who died after filling chikens with now while doing freezing experiments, and Thomas Stonewall Jackson in 1863, whose arm had to be amputated after he was shot by one of his own sentries (Stephen 2002). Pneumonia is more common in cold weather especially during the rainy season.

1.2 PNEUMONIA CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION

There are three types of pneumonia.

--term, hospital-acquired

– Acute, acquired in the community

– Chronic pneumonia (Inglis, 1996).

a) ACUTE COMMUNITY ACQUIRED Pneumonia: This is characterised as pneumonia that develops prior to or immediately after the mission to the hospital. It is one of the most common causes of death from pneumonia worldwide (Fraser, 1996).

A cough, chest pains, and fever are common symptoms of acute pneumonia. Coughing may or may not produce purulent sputum (Stephen, 2002). The most important outcome of acute pneumonia is improved respiratory function, which should be prioritised (Frasch and concopcion, 2000).

b. ACUTE HOSPTAL ACQUIRED Pneumonia: This type of pneumonia affects smokers, patients with past chest distension or following surgery (particularly thoracis and upper abdomen), and ventilated critically ill patients (inglis, 1996). The final group faces the greatest relative risk (Ross, 1994).

c. CHRONIC PNEUMONIA: This has a more gradual onset and a longer course than acute pneumonia. Because there is no one symptom complex, the diagnosis is frequently based on radiographic findings (Frasch and cocaplion, 2002). Coughing may result in parnent sputum that is occasionally blood tinged.

1.3 THE REASONS FOR PNEUMONIA

Extrinsic or intrinsic causes of pneumonia occur, as do numerous bacteria causative against it (Nester et al 2001).

Extrinsic factors include pulmonary irritant exposure or pulmonary damage, whereas intrinsic factors are tied to the host.

The initial infection is caused by a viral virus, such as Rhinovirus or Adanovirus, but there is frequently a secondary infection with a bacteria pathogen from the upper respiratory tract, most commonly Streptococcus pneumonia.

Streptococcus pneumonia, also known as pnumococcus, appears to be the primary cause of many cases of pneumonia, particularly ldorar and bronche pneumonia, with Homophiles influenza as a frequent co-pathogen (Fraser, 1996), but these pneumonic infections are frequently triggered by a preceding viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, such as the common cold (Wisconsin, 2003).

Staphylococcus aureus is another secondary invader of the lower respiratory tract that can cause pneumonia after streptococcus pneumonia (Staphen, 2002). Jawetz et al. 2001; Haemophilus influenza, Kiabsiella pneumonia, etc.).

1.4 EVIDENCE

Pneumonia infection is a leading cause of death worldwide, and it is spreading quickly in Enugu, with Streptococcus pneumoniae as the main pathogen (Okafor 1992). As a result, it is necessary to determine whether this pathogenic organism is the major bacterium that causes premnonia in Enugu.

Although many people contain these bacteria in their threat, mouth, and nasopharyux and these are likely to contaminate the sputum as it is expected through the throat and mouth as well as the commensal in the nasopharynx which can equally contaminate the nasopharyueal swab (Ross, 1994).

1.5  GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This work's goals and objectives are as follows:

1. Purpose: To isolate bacterial pathogens from pneumonia patients.

2. To determine the prevalence of streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia patients utilising UNTH as a case study.

3. To identify the aga group and sex that are more sensitive to this virus.

1.6 HYPOTHESIS

Pneumonia is caused by Ho streptococcus pneumonia.

Pneumonia is not caused by H1 streptococcus.

H2 Streptococcus Pneumoniae has a sex and age relationship.

1.7 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most prevalent cause of pneumonia in both children and adults. Other bacteria have also been implicated as the source of sickness in severe cases of pneumonia.

1.8 DISEASE DIAGNOSIS

Streptococcus pneumoniae and other organisms (Causative pathogens) are diagnosed in pneumonia patients when they are grown from cultures of sterile fluids such as sputum from adults and nasopharyngeal swabs from children who are unable to generate sputum.

The clinical appearance ranges from mild to severe in individuals (Wisconsin 2003). When specimens are cultivated on blood agar and chocolate agar plates, Straptococcue pneumonia and other pathogenic bacteria can be isolated. There have been documented media that aid in the isolation of tiny quantities of pneumococci from sputum that has been extensively polluted with secondary invaders from the throat and mouth. Incubation should be in 5-10% coq with commensals of 5% horse blood (Gilks, 1997).

These bacteria are detected using a battery of biochemical tests. Catalase optochin sensitivity test and bile solubility test for Streptococcus pneumonia, staphylococcus aureus satellition test for Haemophilus influenza, and citrate utilisation for Klebsiella pneumoniae (Cheesbrough 1984).

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