FEEDING PRACTISES OF PREGNANT WOMEN
FEEDING PRACTISES OF PREGNANT WOMEN
This study looks at the impact of maternal and child nutrition during pregnancy at Alimosho General Hospital in Igando. Because numerous practises and situations of the mother impair the developing foetus, pregnancy demands planning. The impact of maternal malnutrition on the course of a pregnancy, the foods pregnant women eat as a primary source of nourishment for their babies, and the events pregnant women should avoid.
The study's overall goal is to determine whether nutrition and lifestyle habits contribute to a favourable pregnancy result, as well as the changes that occur in the body throughout pregnancy. The technique of data collection, on the other hand, was a well-structured questionnaire separated into sections with a sample size of 180 respondents.
The findings suggest that diet has a highly positive impact in pregnancy and that appropriate nutrition, on average, will result in a favourable pregnancy outcome. It also suggests that awareness of the importance of nutrition among pregnant women be spread throughout the country.
CHAPTER ONE:BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
From a nutritional standpoint, expectant and nursing women, babies, and children are the most susceptible parts of a population. These components demand special consideration in any discussion of the malnutrition problem, as this poor nutritional state is prevalent in many underdeveloped nations today. Pregnancy causes significant physiological stress, which increases dietary demands (Gopalan, 2000).
Many practises or situations of the mother that affect the growing foetus are adjustable during pregnancy, such as the following: Consumption of alcoholic beverages, The use of some pharmaceuticals, such as aspirin, the use of illegal narcotics, such as cocaine or marijuana Job-related risks and stresses Smoking,
Inadequate nutrition, such as a lack of iron, zinc, and synthetic folic acid, Excessive vitamin A consumption and high doses of additional nutritional supplements Caffeine addiction, Lack of medical treatment for HIV-positive people or those with aids, as well as poor control of chronic diabetes or hypertension (ADA Reports, 2000).
Women should be aware of these hazards in the months preceding conception. This precaution is required since women frequently do not realise they are pregnant during the first few weeks following conception and may not seek medical attention until after the first 2 to 3 months.
Even without fanfare, the child-to-be grows and develops on a daily basis. As a result, a woman's health and eating habits are especially crucial when she is attempting to become pregnant – or has the potential to become pregnant. Although some aspects of foetal and newborn health are beyond a woman's control, her intentional choices about social, health, and dietary variables influence her infant's health and destiny.
Many studies suggest that getting enough vitamins and minerals at least 8 weeks before conception and during pregnancy will help prevent birth problems such neural lube defects. This issue has been linked to a foliate deficit.
Furthermore, around 50% of pregnancies are unplanned. For these reasons, both before and during pregnancy, parents should be aware of the role diet plays in the formation of a healthy infant.
Prenatal Growth, Development, and Early Growth are the stages of pregnancy, according to Scholl and Johnson (2000). A human embryo grows from an ovum into a fit for about B weeks after conception, and the foetus continues to develop for another 32 weeks. The infant is born when its body has reached maturity.
The mother feeds it until birth through a placenta, an organ that develops in her uterus. The placenta divides the mother's blood supply from the fetus's blood supply. Nutrients travel from the mother's blood through the placenta to support the fetus's growth and development.
The Zygote is formed when egg and sperm combine during the creation of the human organism. The reproductive process begins immediately after this point: Within 30 hours, the zygote divides in half, becoming two cells. Within four days, the cell count increases from 64 to 128 cells.
At 14 days, the clump of cells is known as an embryo. Within 35 days, the heart begins to beat, the embryo is about an inch (8 millimetres) long, and the eyes and limb buds are clearly apparent. At 8 weeks, the embryo is referred to as a foetus. At 13 weeks (the end of the first trimester), the foetal organs have formed and the foetus can move.
For discussion reasons, the duration of pregnancy–normally 37 to 41 weeks from the mother's last menstrual period–is often split into three trimesters. The first trimester is marked by a rapid increase in cell number.
Toxin exposure is most likely to cause the most serious harm to the foetus during the first 8 weeks following conception, or twothirds of the way through the first trimester. However, damage to important organs such as the eyes, brain, and genitals can occur during the latter months of pregnancy.
This form of development predominates during embryonic and later foetal development. The freshly created cells then begin to expand. Further development and expansion entail mostly a rise in cell number with some increase in cell size. Most organs are formed and the foetus can move by the end of the first trimester, which lasts 13 weeks.
Nutritional deficits and other insults passed through the mother to the embryo or fetus–for example, damage induced by medicines and other pharmaceuticals, large intakes of preformed vitamin A,” radiation, or trauma–can affect or stop development. The consequences could endure a lifetime.
These disorders are most likely to occur during the first trimester. The majority of miscarriages (more accurately, spontaneous abortions) occur around this period. Currently, around one-half or more of all pregnancies either fail to adhere to the uterine wall or result in spontaneous abortions, often so early that the woman is unaware she is pregnant. Early spontaneous abortions are mainly caused by a genetic abnormality or foetal mistake in development. Stuart and colleagues, 2003.
Substances that may harm the growing foetus should be avoided by a woman, especially during the first trimester. This is especially true when a woman is attempting to conceive. She is unlikely to be aware of her pregnancy until at least a few weeks, as previously said. Furthermore, during the first trimester, the foetus develops so quickly that if a vital nutrient is not available, the foetus may be impacted even before evidence of the deficit appears in the mother.
As a result, throughout the first trimester, the quality of one's nutritional intake is more significant than the amount. In other words, women should eat the same amount of food as men, but the foods should be higher in nutrient density. Although some women experience nausea and loss of appetite during the first trimester, they should take care to meet their nutritional needs.
Arms, hands, fingers, legs, feet, and toes are fully formed by the beginning of the second trimester.
The foetus develops ears and tooth sockets in its jawbone. Organs continue to develop and mature, and clinicians may detect the fetus's heartbeat using a stethoscope. The majority of bones are clearly visible throughout the body. The foetus eventually comes to resemble a newborn. It may suck its thumb and kick hard enough for the mother to notice.
Toxin exposure can still harm the foetus, but not to the extent seen in the first trimester. The mother's breast weight increases by roughly 300/0 during the second trimester due to the deposition of 2 to 4 pounds of fat during lactation. As a result, undernutrition during the second trimester affects the mother more than the foetus. For example, if the woman does not satisfy the dietary requirements during this time, her ability to breastfeed her newborn may suffer, as fat deposited throughout pregnancy serves as an energy reserve for nursing (Robert and Kail, 2006).
A foetus weighs roughly 2 to 3 pounds by the beginning of the third trimester. The third trimester is critical for foetal development. The fetus's length will quadruple and its weight will be multiplied by five. If an infant is born after about 26 weeks of gestation, it has a decent chance of survival if it is cared for in a high-risk newborn nursery. However, the newborn will lack the vitamin (mostly vitamin E), mineral (primarily iron and calcium), and lipid stores that are regularly accumulated during the last month of pregnancy.
Nutritional therapy for preterm newborns is complicated by this and other medical issues, such as a poor capacity to suck and swallow. It's also worth noting that infants will use their mother's iron stores to get the iron they require. If the mother does not achieve her iron requirements, she may become seriously depleted after childbirth (Gordon, 2002).
At 9 months, the foetus weighs approximately 7 to 9 pounds (3 to 4 kilogrammes) and measures approximately 20 inches (50 centimetres) in length. A soft patch on the brow marks the location of the skull bones (fontanels) developing together. By the time the baby is 12 to 18 months old, the bones have closed (Scholl and Johnson, 2000).
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The events of pregnancy and birth constitute the foundation on which all child development is constructed, as these events of prenatal development turn sperm and e.g. into a living, breathing human being, which is a biological and social reality in man's existence.
The effect of maternal malnutrition on the course of pregnancy, the infant's condition at birth, and the mother's state of nursing, the food a pregnant woman eats are the main source of nutrition's for the baby since many pregnant women don't know what to eat? What kind of consumption should a pregnant lady avoid? Is it critical for pregnant women to learn what foods are healthiest for them and their baby? What causes some babies to be healthier than others?
1. What effects does nutrition have on the course of a pregnancy?
2. How does nutrition affect the health of an infant?
3. How does maternal nutrition affect the infant's status at birth and during the neonatal period? 4. What are the best maternal dietary requirements during pregnancy to maintain the mother's good health, the normal course of her pregnancy, and the satisfactory condition of her infant at birth?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this research is to learn about the effects of diet on mother and child health among pregnant women in Alimosho Local Government Area as a case study. In order to accomplish this, the following will be investigated:
1. To learn about the function of diet throughout pregnancy.
2. Which food and lifestyle habits help to ensure a favourable pregnancy outcome?
3. To comprehend the changes that occur in the body during pregnancy, as well as the nutrients required.
4. Respondents' perspectives on the importance of diet during pregnancy.
5. To prepare an appropriate balanced diet for pregnant women.
1.4 significance OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will lead to a better understanding of the factors that promote successful pregnancy outcomes and the extent to which these factors contribute to the welfare of the infants. It will also trace the events of prenatal development that begin the transformation of sperm and egg into a living breathing human.
Based on this, the medical institution will profit greatly from the outcomes of this study, and appropriate suggestions will be made.
Second, this study will provide insight into the limiting variables that serve as dietary deficiencies in the development and health of newborns. The study also emphasises the importance of nutrition during pregnancy and how it contributes to a successful delivery.
Finally, this research will serve to contribute to the existing knowledge on nutrition in pregnancy.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study is only for pregnant women in Lagos State's Alimosho Local Government Area. The significant limitations of this study are the time and budget constraints in conducting the investigation.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Nutrition is the process by which living organisms get the food they need to develop and stay healthy.
Pregnancy: The condition of a woman or female animal being pregnant, with a baby or young animal developing inside her or its body.
Implication: A potential effect or outcome of an action or decision.
Health: The state of one's body or mind.
Maternal: having feelings towards a child that are typical of a caring mother.
A child is a young human being who is not yet an adult, an unborn child, or a youngster under the age of three.
A hospital is a huge structure in which individuals who are unwell, sick, or injured receive medical treatment and care.