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1.1 Background  Of The Study

Modern educators, philosophers, and researchers have emphasised rational thought and action in relation to altruism since altruism is a type of rational thought and activity.

Krebs (1998) defined altruism as a psychological process based on the acknowledgment of an individual’s trueness and commitment, as well as their ability to wholeness or togetherness as human beings. He also stated essential altruistic requirements like as morality, ideals, and reason in desire and behaviour.

Furthermore, Krebs (1998) demonstrated that while want and motivation are important components in altruism, desire is not the exclusive source of motivation. Other internal variables, aside from desire and motivation, stimulate the expectation of other people’s enjoyment and well-being.

Furthermore, generosity is a “nearly universal virtue in all human civilizations and the main tenant of the majority of the world’s significant religious, social reformer, and revolutionary leader movements” (Senapati, 2016).

Genuine altruism is a proven fact. According to Krueger (2013), this essential characteristic of assisting those who are in need is described in a variety of ways, including socioemotional conduct, moral commitment, and helping out.

People who are motivated to “go beyond of” in response to the needs of others enrich social groupings, community groups, organisations, universities, and households.

Thus, human altruism is defined by a high level of prosociality, and physiological kinship appears to be important in altruistic behaviour (Batson, 1991). Altruistic behaviour is defined as willingly assisting others, driven primarily by compassion for their needs and welfare,

and is frequently motivated by empathy and internalised ideals and norms associated with assisting others (Bierhoff, 1991). Similarly, altruism among diverse social groupings is typified by prosocial behaviour displayed within the society through togetherness, teamwork, sharing, and delivering support.

The school system may make a major and active contribution to increasing prosocial abilities and motivation by implementing structured prosocial educational courses.

Integrated school activities should be encouraged in order to create leadership and, as a result, increase altruism among children.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Altruism has been described in numerous ways by psychologists and other scientists from diverse fields of study, but they all agree that it is an aspect of human nature.

Individual egotism, as well as a “pure” compassionate willingness to aid another person regardless of personal gain, can motivate altruistic behaviour (Batson, 1991).

Positive attitudes and dispositions such as optimism, helpful attitude, compassion, and confidence, which are attributes of altruism, have a large influence on the social well-being, interaction, and sense of belonging of the individuals involved, according to recent research.

As a result, it becomes ideal to instill such behaviour in children. This is required since the behaviours of adolescents are characterised by covert and overt animosity, as well as intentional aggression against others (Oliner, 2002).

According to Sarak (2020), adolescents in Nigerian secondary schools engage in anti-social behaviour that causes physical, psychological, or emotional harm to others.

According to him, among the various behavioural imbalances of secondary school pupils include assaulting others, being nasty to others, and so on.

In other words, pupils care little or nothing about anyone but their peers (to some extent). As teenagers progress to adulthood, the dangers of this behavioural imbalance become more apparent. Notably, in order to truly make the world a better place,

every individual must reach out to the interests and needs of others, with or without personal gain. In light of the foregoing, it is important to instill in youngsters the importance of altruism and to train them to become better altruists through the teaching of altruistic behaviour among teenagers.

1.3 Objective Of The Study

The overarching goal of this study is to assess the teaching of altruistic behaviour to adolescent students. The study’s specific goal is

Determine the essential components of altruism.

Determine whether teaching generosity will improve teenagers’ socialisation skills.

Determine whether teaching compassion will have a favourable influence on students’ inhumane behaviour.

Determine whether altruism activities are carried out in Nigerian secondary schools.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions will lead the research:

What are the elements of altruistic behaviour?

Will teaching generosity improve teenagers’ socialisation skills?

Will teaching compassion have a good impact on students’ inhumane behaviour?

Are there altruism exercises in Nigerian secondary schools?

1.5 Significance Of The Study

The study’s findings will be extremely useful to stakeholders in Nigeria’s secondary schools. According to the study, they would recognise the need to construct altruism activities in secondary schools in order to alter students’ inhumane dispositions throughout time.

Additionally, it will be used as a literature review by succeeding scholars. This means that other students who intend to conduct research in this field will be able to access this study as available literature for critical assessment.

Invariably, the study’s findings add significantly to the body of scholarly information about teaching altruistic behaviour to adolescent students.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

In general, the research focuses on teaching altruistic behaviour to adolescent students. The study will also look into defining the fundamental components of altruism, assessing whether teaching altruism would improve adolescents’ socialisation abilities, and whether teaching altruism will have a good influence on students’ inhumane behaviour.

The investigation will also determine whether altruism activities are carried out in Nigerian secondary schools. As a result, the study would be conducted in a few selected secondary schools in Asaba, Delta State.

1.7. Limitations Of Study

The researcher encountered some difficulties while conducting this study, including time limits, budget constraints, language barriers, and the respondents’ attitudes.

There was also the issue of researcher bias. In this case, the researcher had some biases that may have been reflected in the method the data was obtained,

the sort of people questioned or sampled, and how the data gathered was afterwards evaluated. The possibility of all of this influencing the data and conclusions cannot be overstated.

1.8 Definition Of Terms

Altruism is the principle or practise of caring for or devoting oneself to the benefit of others. The investigator used the “Altruism scale” devised by S. N. Rai and Sanwat Singh and customised by them to assess the level of altruism in the current investigation. The higher the score on the scale, the greater the amount of altruism.

Adolescence: Adolescents are those who are between the ages of 12 and 18. The researcher will include pupils in classes nine and ten who are of this age level and are deemed adolescent in the current study.

Altruism Exercise: In the current study, altruism exercise is operationally defined as the workouts or activities that motivate an adolescent’s altruistic behaviour. The current study’s altruism exercise is an altruistic journey.

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