AN ANALYSIS OF STUDENTS PERCEPTION OF THE 18+ WARNING SIGN IN ALCOHOL ADVERTISEMENTS IN NIGERIAN TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS
Advertising has been identified as one of the factors that increase the likelihood of alcoholic beverage consumption especially among the youth (Alcohol Concern, 2013). Through the use of advertising execution techniques such as humour, celebrity endorsement and music, advertisers are able to embed images that resonate with vulnerable youths. In spite of the documented social and health repercussions of alcohol consumption and little knowledge of warning sign among adults, literature still show that the relationship between advertising warning signs and alcohol consumption is an understudied area.
The study examined the attitude of Nigerian university undergraduates to the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements. The study adopted the survey research design. The target population of the study was 195,000 undergraduates from nine selected universities in South-West, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in the selection process. Gay, Geoffrey and Peter’s formula was adopted to draw the sample size of 1,950 respondents who were proportionately distributed to the nine selected universities… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Background to the Study
Alcohol is perhaps the most commonly used drug among adolescents. It is a ubiquitous toxin and the excess consumption of it can harm almost any organ or system of the body (Anderson, 2007). Alcohol consumption carries a risk of adverse health and social consequences as a result of drunkenness; it is responsible for a range of social, health and economic harms which tend to be most pronounced among the youths (Australian Medical Association, 2012). The harms caused by excessive alcohol consumption as highlighted by Chikere and Mayowa (2011) includes worldwide disease of esophageal cancer, liver cancer, homicide, epilepsy, cirrhosis of the liver and so on.
Alcohol consumption in the past decades was basically used at ceremonies for entertainment, but in Nigeria today, the quantity and reason for consumption are rapidly changing (Chikere & Mayowa, 2011). The new trend of alcohol consumption among young people in Nigeria today contributes to Nigeria’s ranking among thirty countries with highest per capita consumption of alcohol globally (World Health Organization, 2004).
The quantity of consumption by the Nigerian youths is what seem to result in an increased burden of alcohol-related problems such as addiction, poor academic performance, risky driving, health issues, to mention a few (Dumbili, 2013). Despite the effort to prevent underage alcohol consumption, it is still a persistent public health problem (Komro & Toomey, 2002)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Statement of the Problem
Despite regulations to protect the youth and underage from alcohol advertising, they are still regularly exposed to high level of alcohol advertising, young people are exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, radio, internet and in print media, whether they are targeted by advertisers or not (Smith and Foxcroft, 2009). The use of alcohol among the youths and the underage has been a major public health concern because drinking among these youths can result in a number of negative consequences such as alcohol addiction, accidents, poor academic performance, risky sex, injuries and even untimely death… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the attitude of university undergraduates to the 18+ warning sign in alcoholic beverage advertisements. The specific objectives are to:
- determine the relationship between awareness of the 18+ warning sign and the attitude of university undergraduates towards alcoholic beverage consumption…. (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
In this chapter, the study reviews a number of literatures and appropriate theoretical framework relevant to the study. According to Krugmann, et al (1994), advertising has become an essential marketing activity in the modern era of large scale production and serves competition in the market. The fundamental purpose of advertising is to sell something-a product, service, or idea. Advertising is used for communicating business information to present and prospective customers.
It usually provides information about the advertising firm, its product qualities, place of availability of its products. Advertisement has become indispensable for both the sellers and buyers. However, it is more important for sellers. In the modern age of large scale production, producers cannot think of pushing the scale of their products without advertising them.
For many, adolescence is a vulnerable stage, where independence from family and acceptance by peers, especially same-sex is important… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The power of advertising to influence children and adolescents is incontrovertible. Advertising works, otherwise, companies would not spend billions of dollars on it. Many ads use celebrity endorsers, humor rock music, or attractive young models, all of which have been shown to be effective with children and adolescents. Advertising makes drinking seem like normative activities and may function as ‘superpeer’ in subtly pressuring teenagers to experiment.
Research has revealed that advertising may be responsible for up to 30 % adolescent alcohol use. Beer commercials are virtually custom-made to appeal to children and adolescents, using images of fun-loving, sexy, successful young people having the time of their lives. Many studies have revealed that exposure to alcohol advertising results in more positive beliefs about drinking during early adolescence and young adulthood (Pediatrics, 2010). .. (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The use and abuse of alcohol by teenagers creates serious health and social problems. When they drink, teenagers also are highly likely to engage in episodic heavy binge drinking. Alcohol use is a principal risk factor in the three leading causes of death among adolescents which are unintentional injuries (including motor vehicle crashes), suicides, and homicides. Adolescent drinking also is associated with violent gang activities, poor school performance, intimate partner violence, risky sexual behaviors (unprotected sex), sexual transmitted diseases and sexual assault (American Journal of Health Education, 2005).
A growing body of research suggests that alcohol advertising plays a major role in the development of normative beliefs, positive outcome expectancies, and drinking intentions for both children and adolescents. One concern is the fact that alcohol advertisements often use tactics that include humor, youth-oriented themes, and young adult actors or models, all of which increase their appeal to under-age audiences.
While the alcohol industry may argue that its alcohol advertisement is intended only to strengthen brand loyalty or encourage brand switching among adult drinkers, the message also may be affecting children and teenagers. Several studies have found that children and adolescents who are exposed to a greater amount of alcohol advertising are more likely to use or intend to use, such products (American Journal of Health Education, 2005)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
According to Kombo & Tromp (2006) a theoretical framework is a reasoned set of prepositions, which are derived from and supported by data or evidence. It accounts for or explains phenomena. A theoretical framework attempts to clarify why things are the way they are based on theories. This study used three theories namely; Social learning theory, Cognitive Dissonance theory and Social Judgement theory.
Albert Bandura who is the proponent of social learning theory believed that direct reinforcement could not account for all types of learning. His theory added a social element, arguing that people can learn new information and behaviors by watching other people known as observational learning (or modeling). This learning can be used to explain a wide variety of behaviors. Bandura identified three basic models of observational learning; first, a live model, which involves an actual individual demonstrating or acting out a behavior.
Second, a verbal instructional model, which involves descriptions and explanations of a behavior. Finally, a symbol model, which involves real or fictional characters displaying behavior in books, films, television programs, or online media. (Bandura, 1977).
Alcohol expectancies are the beliefs that an individual has concerning the effects of alcohol and the desirability of those effects (Alcohol Advertisement). These beliefs are acquired through observation, vicarious learning, and assimilation of cultural stereotypes (Critchlow, 1986).
Alcohol expectancies are learned before drinking begins and are thought to influence both the initiation and maintenance of drinking behavior (Bauman, et al. 1985). Social learning theorist posit that the expectation contribute to alcohol abuse… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
This chapter looks at the specific approaches that were used in data collection and data analysis in addressing the research questions. It covers the research site, study population, research design, sample size & sampling procedure, data collection methods, and data analysis & data presentation.
The research site was in Southwest geopolitical zone-Nigeria. This is an area the researcher has lived and is quite familiar with the place.
The target study population was both male and female between 14-19yrs old picked from four universities. There are four universities in the Southwest geopolitical zone with a population of 19000 students.
Pechmann (2005) in a review of neuroscience, psychology, and marketing literature concluded that adolescents, because of how the human develops, may be particularly attracted to branded products such as alcohol that are associated with risky behavior and that provide, in their view immediate gratification, thrills, and social status… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
This chapter presents the findings of the study in regard to the influence of television (Alcohol Advertisement) on alcoholic beverage consumption among the youth in university in Nigeria, Southwest geopolitical zone. A discussion of the findings is also done. The first part of this analysis presents data on the social-demographic profile of the respondents.
Table 1: Distribution of respondents by age
|Percentage (%)||Total||Number of Respondents||
Source: Researcher 2014
Table 4.1 above presents the distribution of respondents aged 14-19 years. The male respondents were 58.7% and females were 41.7%. This distribution of respondents by their sex reflected their numbers in the target population. Students aged 14 years were 10.1%, 15 years were 16%, 16 years were 16.6%, 17 years were 22.9%, 18 years were 19.4% and those 19 years was 16%.
Table 2: Family Type
|Type of family||
|Total||Number of Respondents||
|Mother & Father||
Source: Researcher 2014
Table 4.2 above shows that 52.6% of the respondents have both parents, those living with single mothers were 18.1%, those living with single fathers were 9.7%, those living with foster parents were 10.4% and those living with grandparents were 9.4%… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of key findings
Level of information about alcohol
It is very clear from this research that the majority of the students (95.4%) had knowledge about alcohol drinking and its side effects. The respondents attributed this knowledge to various sources such as school, friends, parents, religious affiliations, and the media (television and radio). It is clear from the findings that despite the awareness of alcohol drinking and its side effects this knowledge has not been fully translated into action because 42.1% of the respondents are still drinking alcohol. This finding may indicate that there is a need for more awareness programs and campaigns on alcohol drinking and its side effects… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
First, based on the findings of this study, there seems to be a strong disconnect in the enforcement of legislation related to age restrictions in the sale of alcohol to minors (persons under the age of 18 years). Greater emphasis is required on the enforcement of legislation relating to the sale of alcohol to minors… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Recommendations for further research
As indicated earlier, this research had a limited scope of the study. There is a lot that needs to be done by way of research in order to settle some outstanding concerns. There are a number of possibilities for future research as follows: (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
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