BARRIERS TO SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
Language is the key point to any effective reasoning for every individual, without language, one cannot express its idea properly and effectively. This thesis is an attempt to find out the barriers faced by Kurama adults in acquiring Hausa as second language.
It is divided into five chapters, the first chapter introduces the study, purpose of the study, statement of the problem of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation on the study and then basic assumption.
The second chapter is about literature review on second language – acquisition, socio-psychological problem in language learning and learning strategies in an adult. The third chapter introduces the research method used in conducting this study… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
In Nigeria today, we have different types of languages which according to some researchers are about 179 (C. L. Temple). A source among these are Kurama and Hausa. Kurama people are mostly found in Lere Local Government of Kaduna State. These people have been together with Hausa in that area from time immemorial, they shared some cultural values together (Notes on the tribes of Northern Nigeria).
Kurama people are known to be using Hausa as their second language irrespective of whether they can speak it fluently or not and the Hausa people in the area are aware of this. Seeing how researchers on language learning put less emphasis on barriers or problems facing language learners, the present research is intended to look into these barriers.
A study research would be conducted on barriers facing Kurama adults acquiring Hausa as second language to know why, how and where these barriers do occur.
Statement of The Problem
In acquiring second language is known to be faced with many barriers especially in an adult, whose tongue is stiff and whose acquiring abilities have already developed, even though, (Dulay and Burt, 1973) claimed that second language learners regardless of their age or first language background, acquire grammatical morphemes and structures in a similar sequence. From the above statement both adults and teenagers encountered the same problem in acquiring second language. So it is hoped that, this research will look into these barriers encountered by second language acquirer and also to answer the following question.
Why do Kurama adults encountered difficulties in learning Hausa as second language?…
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The Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is to find out what are the barriers facing Kurama adults in acquiring Hausa as a second language. The problem of letters, pronunciation and formation of Hausa sentences is very much common among Kurama both adults and teenagers (Ndhahi, 1982). Ndhahi (1982) stated that second language learners acquire certain grammatical aspects in an order similar to that followed by first language acquirers.
It is also claimed that second language learners regardless of their age or first language background, acquire grammatical morphemes and structures in a similar sequence (Duley and Burt 1973)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Socio-psychological Problem In Language Learning
Must significant research has been applied to problems of learning a first language, and perhaps even more has been expended on the difficulties of second language learning.
Most of this investigation has concentrated upon various aspects of the psychology of learning, though, some have also dealt with other, and perhaps to some extent more fundamental problems, namely motivation… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Language Learning Strategies for The Adult
Corder, (1967) states that the linguistic performance of the adult language learner is evidence of his possession of a strategy or built in language learning syllabus, one which might be different from the syllabus imposed on him by the language course designer.
The question then naturally arises whether this syllabus is the same for the adult as for child, that the child has such a syllabus seens now to be beyond question… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Theories of Language Acquisition
Different views of the child acquiring a language have been put forward. Some, particularly the behaviourists, see the child as a passive, empty thing to be acted upon by the adult, who fills it with the material or knowledge he sees fit.
Others the cognitivists, for instance, see him as an active individual who acts upon the environment in which he lives. H. D. Brown (1980) and Linfords (1980). These views are exposed in the different theories which are discussed below:
This theory represent by Osgood, (1953), is an attempt to compensate for some of the deficiencies of the stimulus – response theory. (Clark, 1975), which claims that activity is governed by stimuli in the immediate situation, i.e. “the here and now”, in piaget’s language. But in real life it is obvious that we are influenced by events which are distant from us in both space and time, i.e. “the not here and not now”.
The concept of mediation developed out of pavlor’s contiguity theory, which holds that responses which occur naturally to one stimulus can come to be elicited by another, previously neutral stimulus… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Description of Sample Origin
- Kurama Origin
Little is known about Kurama origin since there is no essential documents on the Kurama history. According to the very little history obtained, that Kurama originated from Madayyana a village in Southern Sudan from 16 –17th Century 1400 A.D. They then left Madayyana and settled in the forestry area of Chad, from Chad they proceeded to Kano in
Northern Nigeria. But the specific date for the settlements is not known… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Method of Measuring Attitude
One of the easiest methods of measuring the subject attitude is to ask them direct open ended or multiple-choice questions designed to make them show their reason for learning the target language.
Also illustration method will be employed to those who cannot respond very well. The researcher will put the questionnaires in form of question or even asked them to used those letter which are very… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DSCUSSION
Having discussed the barriers involved in second language acquisition in adults, it is now time to bring the two languages together and compare their phonological barriers as well as any significant similarities or differences and the interference of Kurama phonological aspect into Hausa, so that the barriers can be identified.
It is intended in this chapter also, to discuss the responses of various Kurama adults and adolescent interviewed their major problems when acquiring Hausa as a second language. When acquiring second language or any language in generals, acquisition varies in relation to where one spent most of his early life.
Worthy (1991), states that in a community where two entirely different languages are spoken, a speaker frequently faces a choice between two languages and the same variables that bear upon choices of lexical, phonological details can also influence the choice of language… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Barriers Relating To Phonetics and Phonology
Joanne Ken worthy (1991) defines phonetic as the description and classification of speech sound. There are different branches of phonetics, there is the articulatory phonetics, the way sounds are articulated, the acoustic phonetics which deals with the physical properties of speech sound, and the auditory phonetics, which approaches the study of sound from the perspective of the hear or (also/known as the perceptual phonetic).
Phonology, on the other hand, has been defined as the branch of linguistics, which concerned with the description of the patterns of sound in a particular language and the way the set of sound in a particular language work as a system. These patterns of sound shall be discussed in relation to places and manner of sound articulation.
- M. Zarruk (1996) defined phonology in Hausa as the classification of sound between children or between dialects, and according to him, it is through this classification that the differences between languages can be identify. He gave out five places meant for sounds articulation:-
The bilabial, these are sounds made with both lips. The initial sounds of letters like:-
These are the bilabial sounds produced with both lips as give by R. M. Zarruk in his book Hausa version “ilmin furua”. The Kurama bilabial sounds are as follow… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
The Interference of Kurama Phonological System into Hausa
We have seen how and what are the barriers in relation to places of articulation, now it is the interference of theological system of Kurama into Hausa language. Joanne Ken worthy (1991), states that the interference of phonology or phonological borrowing is less easy to perceive than lexical borrowing, yet it also occur.
He further explains that at least two mechanisms can lead the phonology of one language to affect that of another. The first and less radical is through the influence of borrowed words carrying some foreign characteristics with them… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
This chapter gives a summary of the study of discussion and the interview conducted with the Kurama adults and adolescents who are second-language speakers of Hausa. It was specifically under Lere Local government in some particular villages, namely Yarkasuwa, Ashema, Kuzodo and Garu respectively. The chapter again gives out the conclusion and some recommendations on what have been drawn from the study.
The study was an attempt to find out the barriers involved in Kurama adults acquiring or speaking Hausa as second language. The subject used in this study were Kurama adults, whose first language is Kurama. They were selected from the above mention villages, the method used in this study was physical discussion and interview with the subject.
The researcher used Hausa language, and also Kurama language. Many barriers were found especially on oral expression and most of the subjects interviewed cannot read nor write. The summary of the discussion and interview is therefore presented as follow: (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
In view of the discoveries in this study, it is therefore recommended that: –
The Kurama should not stick to the basic meaning and shape of Hausa sentences, but they should also learn the way to modify them. The pupils and students in those areas should be taught how to construct good sentences. .. (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
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