BACTERIAL CONTAMINANTS ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL POULTRY FEED FROM THREE DIFFERENT COMPANIES
Bacterial contaminants associated with commercial poultry feeds from three different companies in Enugu (Ave investment, Phinomar and Bora feed producing company) were studied. Four types of poultry feeds which include starter, grower, finisher and layer were examined using pour plate techniques. The culture media used were cled agar and salmonella – shigella agar (SSA).
The contaminants isolated include Escherichia coil salmonella Spp and Proteus Spp. The microbial load of the feed sample was highest in layer feed type (140) followed by grower feed type having a total plate count of 138 and the lowest microbial count were gotten in starter feed type with 122 count… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Background of the Study
The term poultry used in agriculture generally refers to all domesticated bird kept for egg laying or meat production. These most typically are members of the super order Galloanserae (fowl), especially the order Galliformes (which includes chickens, quaits and turkeys) and the family Anatidae (in order Anseriformes) commonly known as “water fowl” (examples; domestic ducks, domestic geese and ecterim).
Poultry also includes other birds which are killed for their meat, such as pigeons or doves or birds which are considered to be game, such as pheasants. Poultry comes from the French / Norman word Poul, itself derived from Latin word “Pullus”, which means “small animals” Poultry is the second most widely-eaten meat in the world, accounting for about 38% (Raloff, 2003).
The species of poultry are adaptable or can survive in different environments, therefore they are widely distributed in the world with great increase in population, the demand for animal protein becomes acute. To meet these demands and their development, rapid multiplying ones become necessary. Poultry has so many advantages over other domestically animals whose production is very much hindered by lack of funds, high temperature, diseases of and other lack of feed at certain period of the year.
The disease of poultry is like the disease of other animals, they may be caused by Pathogenic organisms, nutritional deficiency and from wound or cannibalism. Some of the diseases associated with the fowls locally include; new castle disease, chronic respiratory disease, fowl typhoid, Coccidiosis, and fowlpox diseases… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Statement of Problem
Poultry feeds are infected during processing, by handling, mixing of ingredients, and exposing the raw materials and finished products to the atmospheric micro-organism, therefore, a high rate of poultry disease and death occur as a result of the consummation of contaminated feed and unpurified water. Also when the healthy and unhealthy birds are fed – together from the same feeding trough and water vessels eventually the pathogenic and enteric organisms from infected ones may widely spread… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
To determine the incidence of bacterial infection which cause health hazard to the poultry… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Importance of poultry products for human consumption
Poultry provides humans with companionship, food and fiber in the form of eggs, meat and feathers. Many people love to raise and show chickens and other poultry species at fairs and other poultry shows. Others just love to raise them for backyard pets and for fresh eggs every day. There is a large commercial chicken industry that provides us with eggs and meat.
This reflects that consumption based, in turn, on consumer preference for these high-quality products and the relatively low price because of high efficiency of production; hence the safety of poultry products is a prominent quality issue (Mead et al., 1993). Globally, production of the primary poultry products (meat and eggs) has been rising rapidly with an increase in human population.
Importance of hygienic measurements
Microbial quality control and all the standard measures for poultry feed production in feed factories, which should be responsible for the quality of feed products, should be followed. Information is limited regarding the incidence and number of bacteria associated with poultry feed, especially the neglected ones, which may become a greater problem in future, for example, Yersinia, Hafnia and Bacillus species (Waldroup, 1996).
Different approaches had been used to reduce the contamination of feed components as well as the finished feed. Hazard analysis of critical control point (HACCP) process ensuring feed safety was developed in 1960 in USA. The system can be used to identify potential problems with food safety in advanced and set methods to control each possible hazard identified.
Critical control point (CCP), a point step or procedure at which control can be applied, and food/feed safety hazard can be prevented, eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels can also be considered (Loken, 1995)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Sources of Contamination: Bacteria Contaminants
- Ingredient contamination
The greatest isolation was found among animal proteins and by–products of animal origin such as bone meal, meat meal, fishmeal and vegetable proteins, particularly sesame and groundnut cakes (Sakazaki, 2000). The lower the number of organisms per gram in a particular feed ingredient has a lower rate of contamination and possesses a lower risk of causing infection.
The whole process of minimizing the risk of contamination must start with selection of a suitable raw material. A program for frequent inspection and cleaning is necessary, and must be employed to prevent the growth of potential harmful micro-organisms into previously safe ingredients (Sakazaki, 2000).
- Storage (temperature and humidity)
Heat treatment was found to be very efficient in sterilization of feed ingredients such as bone meal, fish meal, meat meal and vegetable by-products; it decreases the total viable count or bacterial load of feed. Bacteria are affected by heat treatment according to the degree of temperature used, holding time, pressure, moisture, and type of bacteria.
At a temperature of 600C and less, the total viable count is typically be in the order of 1.0×106 colony forming unit (cfu) per gram of sample where most of the dangerous bacteria were not killed and is considered dangerous or unsafe. At 800C the total viable count decreases and is typically be in the order 1.0×105 cfu per gram of sample or lesser (Quadri and Deyoe, 1998).
At a temperature of 1000C and over, the range of the total viable count decreases and will be in the order 1.0×103 – 1.0×102 and at a temperature of 120 0C the total viable count is nil (Quadri and Deyoe, 1998)… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Autoclave, Incubator, Weighing balance, Bunsen balance, Wire loop, Hot air Oven, Cotton wool, Water bath, Spatula, Aluminium foil, Microscope, Blender, Beakers , Conical flask, Slides, cover slip, Petri dishes, Pipettes, Reagent bottles, Test tube and Calibrated cylinder.
Cled agar and Salmonella -Shigella Agar (SSA)
Crystal violet, Lugal’s Iodine, Acetone Alcohol, Safranin, Methyl red, Kovac’ reagent, Hydrogen peroxide and Peptone water.
Sterilization of Materials
The glassware and the wire loops were properly washed, air dried, wrapped with kraft paper and sterilized in hot air oven at 180oC for 2 h.
Collection of Sample
Poultry feeds consisting of ten lots were obtained from three different commercial feed-producing companies at Enugu, Nigeria. The samples (lots) for microbiological analysis were aseptically collected in sterile polythene bags and then taken to laboratory for analysis… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
This study was conducted in order to determine and investigate the bacterial contaminants of poultry feeds. Four types of poultry feeds consisting of ten samples were examined using different media. Table 1 represents the total plate count of bacteria for all of the samples on the selective media.
Table 2 represents the standard plate count of the different colonies formed. Here, counting is based on the colors of the colonies formed on CLED media, the alphabet A, B and C in the table represents different colors on the CLED media that is the designation of colonies of the samples.
Table 3 represents morphological characteristics of the bacteria isolates. The bacteria were identified by determining their colony morphology in the selective media (CLED and SSA). Poultry feeds were contaminated with Escherichia coli and Samonella spp. (Parker, 1990).
Table 1: Total Plate Count Of Bacterial Isolates from Poultry Feed
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CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
It can be concluded that:
- coli, Salmonella spp. and Proteus were the major poultry feed contaminants in Nigeria… (Scroll down for the link to get the Complete Chapter One to Five Project Material)
Hygienic production of poultry feed is a public health issue, therefore, proper treatment of feed ingredients and application of hygienic measures, such as HACCP, starting from harvesting of feed ingredients to the storage, processing of feeds, packaging, transporting and eventual marketing of the bagged feeds.
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