THE EFFECTS OF JOB satisfaction ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN government-OWNED ENTREPRISES
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Impact of work satisfaction on employee performance in Government Owned Enterprises (GOEs) is the subject of this project report. It was once considered excellent economic strategy for the government to establish and invest in corporations and businesses. Private initiative was deemed less effective at stimulating and accelerating natural economic development than government-owned enterprises. The purpose of this study was to investigate, identify, analyze, and provide findings about the impact of job satisfaction on employee performance. To meet the aforementioned objectives, it was hypothesized that promotion has no effect on job satisfaction, that there is no correlation between compensation and job happiness, and that a favorable work environment has no effect on job satisfaction in government-owned firms. The researcher utilized study questionnaires that were prepared and delivered to the employees of these government-owned companies. The analysis method employs tables, percentages, and chi-square. Promotion has a substantial association with job happiness, there is a relationship between compensation and job satisfaction, and a conducive environment contributes to job satisfaction among government-owned enterprise employees. In light of the above data, the study suggests:
Government-owned firms should view prompt/increased payment as a motivator that can boost organizational productivity.
The government should consider employee contributions as a promotion criterion because the majority of government employees are idle.
The government should create a suitable working atmosphere so that employees view their workplace as their second home. Government-owned firms should embrace objective-based management in which employees participate in organizational decision-making so that all hands are on deck.
5. The organization's structure should be restructured so that employees and employers can have amicable relationships.
To promote performance, working conditions should be addressed and made sustainable.
7. The management should be responsive to the varying demands and values of each employee. Each person is unique and will respond differently to attempts to motivate them.
8. management should be considerate of employee complaints regarding poor compensation and monotonous labor. Too frequently, management is deceived into believing that they can reduce employee dissatisfaction by repainting the workplace, piping in music, offering a few more words of appreciation, or granting longer work breaks.
1.1 CONTEXT OF THE STUDY
It is difficult to overstate the significance of qualified labor to the social, political, and economic growth of any nation. No nation is known to have achieved and maintained a high level of economic growth and development without a sufficient supply of labor.
Human resources are the most important factor in unlocking the powers of economic and social progress, because without them all other variables must wait. (Nwachukwu 1988, p-128)
According to Nwachukwu, rapid economic development in advanced countries can be attributed to improvements in the quality of the labor force. Kuznet, cited in Nwachukwu, observed that “the major capital stock of an industrially advanced country is not its physical equipment; it is the body of knowledge accumulated from tested findings and discoveries of empirical science, and the capacity and training of its population to use this knowledge.”
At the level of the organization, the purpose of any personnel program is to improve the welfare of employees by maximizing their abilities and the quality and quantity of their employment opportunities, hence boosting their economic vitality (Nwachukwu ibid). Thus, all employee programs are geared toward human resource development and utilization, keeping in mind that a motivated and satisfied workforce is an organization's greatest asset, thereby boosting productivity. Money, people, and resources are the three essential components of any company enterprise. While each of these factors is crucial to the success of any company, it is the people or human element that is frequently accountable for the organization's success.
It is not rare for rival organizations to purchase their products from the same market, obtain their funding from the same sources, and employ their employees in the same region, yet one company emerges as the more productive and profitable.
The majority of the time, a study of such situations indicates that the difference in performance is attributable to one company's more “satisfied” and therefore more productive workforce. In this example, human capital determines the profitability of businesses.
Rensis Likert, a renowned management theorist, states, “All company actions are begun and determined by the people who comprise that institution,” highlighting the significance of employee function. Plant, offices, computers, equipment, and everything else that a modern business employs are all unproductive unless directed by human labor. Human resource management is the central and most significant aspect of management because all other responsibilities depend on its success (Likert quoted in Iyayi 1989, p.151). Personnel/employee administration is the function of an organization or enterprise that focuses on the management of the human element in organizations.
This human element permeates the entire organization; hence, the performance of the personnel, or at least a significant portion of it, is the responsibility of all employees and managers who are in some way accountable for the performance of one or more subordinates in the company. All managers must fulfill the personnel tasks of leading, directing, and inspiring their employees. Even if the manager's major role is manufacturing, accounting, or marketing, he or she is likely to fail if he or she fails in any of these areas (Iyayi ibid).
However, the fact that all managers do personnel-related tasks does not mean that they are all personnel managers. Every organization has a particular department or unit involved with initiating and establishing policy, as well as providing advice, service, and oversight over all personnel matters. Thus, although personnel managers execute all the personnel functions of other managers, they also possess broad human skills and specialized technological abilities for addressing people-oriented issues within the business. Typically, the personnel manager applies his or her technical skills to issues that arise in the following major areas: employment, training and development, transfer, promotion, and layoff, wage and salary administration, health and safety, discipline and termination, industrial and labor relations, employee benefits and services, and personnel and behavioral research.
The aforementioned comprise staff conditions of service, which are the focal point of personnel management and on which industrial peace, industrial expansion, and the general well-being of the staff and the organization depend ( Abah 1997, p.238).
Staff conditions of service vary from business to business, industry to industry, and most significantly between government-owned and privately-owned businesses, as well as between government and private businesses, which in turn explains the wide variation in job satisfaction and employee performance among the various organizations. This study focused on the effect of job satisfaction on employee performance, with a particular emphasis on government-owned firms in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF problem
Similar to numerous other developing nations, Nigeria accelerated the economic and industrial development of her nation. She became actively involved in the formation of public companies and government businesses encompassing a vast and intricate spectrum of public utility, infrastructure facilities, strategic enterprises, industries, and commerce.
Since its independence in 1960, the country has inherited or founded numerous enterprises, including the Nigerian Railway Corporation and Nigerian Airways. However, the administration of these enterprises has left much to be desired over the years. According to the Director General of the Bureau of public business, Nigerian Airways is a bankrupt firm.
Director General of the Bureau of Public Enterprises stated that Nigerian Airways owes $400 million in debt while reciting facts regarding the firm. There are 2000 employees and one aircraft. It also has pension liabilities of $40 million. This scenario applies to nearly all government-owned companies and corporations in Nigeria and has had an equivalent impact on job satisfaction and employee performance.
Management influences and determines employee performance. However, many managers in Nigeria's Government Owned Enterprises either lack knowledge of the fundamentals of organizational behavior or are not allowed the autonomy to govern their firms. They are unable to define employee goals and relate incentives to inspire personnel.
It has been noticed that all employed Nigerians possess productivity-enhancing qualities. The only thing lacking is the supervisory/management skills necessary to maximize these abilities. On the basis of the introduction, the study intended to address the following questions:
a. What are the characteristics of supervisory/management techniques in government-owned corporations?
b. How has this affected employee performance and job satisfaction?
c. Are the motivational and other management approaches in Government Owned Enterprises sufficient to guarantee work satisfaction and boost employee performance?
d. Do supervisors/managers of Government Owned Enterprises adhere to established management principles when making decisions that affect employees?
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study's aims are as follows:
Determine the effect of promotion on employee work satisfaction.
Determine the influence of wage on employee job satisfaction
Determine the significance of conducive environment to job satisfaction.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What is the relationship between promotion and employee job satisfaction?
Is there a correlation between employee income and job satisfaction?
How much does a suitable workplace contribute to employee job satisfaction?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
There is no correlation between promotion and employee job satisfaction
There is no correlation between staff remuneration and job satisfaction
3. Conducive environment does not add to contentment among personnel.
1.6 Importance of the Research
Management of Government Owned Enterprises has been a contentious issue in Nigeria over the past two decades, generating a large number of debates and publications. This work is significant since it will contribute to the existing body of knowledge in this field.
It is also significant since it would provide information on the management trend and journey of Government Owned Enterprises thus far. The study's findings will be insightful since they will demonstrate how much job satisfaction is available in government-owned companies and how this has affected employee productivity in these firms.
Since independence, the government has invested a great deal in the formation and maintenance of enterprises, but little is known about productivity and employee morale.
Accordingly, economists, management practitioners, students, and the general public will find this study beneficial because it will provide guidance for the future. The proposals are beneficial because they will serve as guidance to the government regarding the proper interaction between the government and enterprises.
Lastly, the study is significant since it is a mandatory academic activity for the awarding of a Master of Business Administration degree.
1.7 SCOPE AND RESTRICTIONS
The scope of this study encompasses Enugu, the state capital of Enugu. The focus of the study was the city's government-owned businesses. As the former capital of defunct Eastern Region, East Central State, and old Anambra State, Enugu is home to a large number of government organizations with headquarters or regional offices. Among the businesses examined are Enugu State Transport Company (ENTRACO), Hotel Presidential, Enugu, Nigeria Railway Corporation, and the Eastern Regional office. These businesses were founded to generate profits, a goal that has yet to be attained.
This research has quite a few severe drawbacks. The first obstacle was that it was difficult for the researcher to mix her work with the study. In addition, the study was conducted during a period of fuel scarcity, resulting in high transportation costs and, in the majority of cases, poor participation by staff of the organizations visited for questionnaire distribution. When doing a study of this sort in our context, some participants were receptive to answering oral questions, whilst others did not take the time to read the questionnaire, resulting in a small number of incorrect responses. These limitations had no impact on the outcome of the study.
1.8 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
As previously stated, Government Owned Enterprises such as PHCN and others were created to provide infrastructure services. The performance of this group of Government Owned Enterprises is measured by the effectiveness of their services. There are further types of Government Owned Enterprises that exist solely for profit. This group's success is measured in terms of its profitability.
This study focuses mostly on the second group, where it is hypothesized that job satisfaction has a greater effect on productivity. This suggests that only for-profit companies were included in the study. This delimitation was deemed typical for a study of this sort in a developing nation with little data, such as ours.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Motivation is the process of inspiring others to take action in order to attain desired objectives or complete desired tasks. Hezbong, Fedenick (1964). The inspiration hygiene concept and manpower personnel administration issues for the months of January and February.
Personnel Administration is the function of an organization or enterprise that focuses on the management of the human component of the organization. Norbert C. Abah published Public Personnel Administration in 1997 with Jeen Publishers Ltd. in Enugu.
3. NA – Nigerian Airways. Sun Publication April 20, 2003
Bureau of Public Enterprises; Sun Newspaper; April 20, 2003
Management by objective (MBO) Business Horizon, June 1974, Odiorne, C.T., “Politics of Implementing MBO.”
THE EFFECTS OF JOB SATISFACTION ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN GOVERNMENT-OWNED ENTREPRISES
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