This case study report was carried at the Buea Town Integrated Health Center. The study report is “Management of a Patient with Typhoid fever at the Buea Town Integrated Health Center”. Typhoid fever also known simply as typhoid is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms like body weakness, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, headache and constipation. The objective of this study is to better manage the patient suffering from typhoid fever to promote good health using a nursing care plan to enable healing. This study is set out to provide holistic care for a patient suffering from typhoid fever. From the statistic, typhoid fever is a common disease and mortality rate are very low (0%) because of timely intervention.
1.1 Background to the Study
Typhoid fever is a life-threatening infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi (WHO, 2019). It is most common in children (Wain et al., 2015) and among young adults between 5 and 19 years (WHO, 2011). Typhoid usually spread through contaminated food or water. Once the bacteria are eaten or drunk, they multiply and spread into the bloodstream (WHO, 2019).
Globally, an estimated 11 –20 million people get sick from typhoid and between 128 000 and 161 000 people die from it every year (WHO, 2019). It is relatively common in countries with poor water supply and sanitation. Infants, children, and adolescents experience the greatest burden of illness (Crump, Luby and Mintz, 2014). Outbreaks of typhoid fever are also frequently reported from sub-Saharan Africa and countries in Southeast Asia where major deaths and disability occur (Yap, Kien-Pong; et al., 2012). The risk of death may be as high as 20% without treatment (WHO, 2015), with treatment, it is between 1 and 4% (Wain et al., 2015; WHO, 2019).
Salmonella typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. Typhoid infection produces a febrile illness 6 – 30 days after exposure (CDC 2013; Anna, 2014), characterized by prolonged high fever, headache, fatigue, and malaise being the classic symptoms with nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation or diarrhea. Some patients may have a rash. Severe cases may lead to serious complications or even death. Improved living conditions and the introduction of antibiotics results in a drastic reduction of typhoid fever incidence and deaths (WHO, 2019).
1.2 Objectives of the Study
1.2.1 General objective
To provide and evaluate nursing care of a patient with Typhoid fever
1.2.2 Specific objectives
To better manage a patient suffering from typhoid feverTo plan and implement nursing care for a patient with typhoid feverTo evaluate the response to care for a patient with typhoid fever.
1.3 Rationale and Significance
This study will contribute in reducing the global burden of typhoid fever by proposing new guidelines for nursing care of infected persons especially in vulnerable children and adolescents.
1.4 Definition of Key Terms
Typhoid fever: Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms.
Incidence: Incidence is the rate of new (or newly diagnosed) cases of the disease. It is generally reported as the number of new cases occurring within a period of time
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