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This study investigated the role of instructional materials in students' academic performance empirically. The study's objectives were to determine the level of students' academic performance in Nigeria, examine the influence of instructional material utilization on teaching in Nigerian primary schools, and determine measures for preventing low academic performance using instructional materials in Nigerian primary schools.

The study's scope includes all primary schools in the FCT, as well as students and staff from a few selected primary schools, and the behaviorist theory was used as a framework. The survey research design was used for this study, and the population targeted for this study consists of all primary schools in Nigeria. A total of 50 schools were used as sample size, with 300 questionnaires administered to students and staffs, and the cluster sampling technique was used.

The questionnaire was used for this study. The information gathered came from primary sources. According to the findings of the data analysis, the level of pupil academic performance in junior primary schools is high, the level of pupil academic performance taught with instructional materials is very high, and the problem of low academic performance can be solved using instructional materials such as prints and visuals.

Following the findings, it was recommended that students be taught using instructional materials, and that teachers use a variety of instructional materials when teaching, including prints, visuals, audio, and audio-visuals. According to the study, the use of instructional materials when teaching in primary schools should be encouraged because it will help raise the level of comprehension.

Keywords: educational materials, academic performance, primary school, educational system



1.1. The Study's Background

The significance of using instructional materials in promoting student academic performance cannot be overstated. Primary school teachers use instructional materials in their classroom instruction. Instructional materials, also known as teaching/learning materials, are any collection of materials, including animate and inanimate objects, as well as human and non-human resources, that a teacher can use in teaching and learning situations to help students achieve their learning goals.

Learning techniques should be used to change students' perceptions of learning. Subskills developed through instructional materials should serve as the foundation for more meaningful learning in order to develop or maintain one's specific skills.

Teaching with instructional materials has been a part of education in Nigeria for many years. However, it is disheartening to note that poor student performance persists. Instructional materials are important and necessary tools for teaching and learning in order to increase teacher efficiency and improve student performance.

Education is one of the most important aspects of human life, especially in this modern era when employers inquire about educational qualifications obtained when applying for a job. For many years, Nigeria's educational system has been in crisis, ranging from the presence of unqualified teachers in the educational system to a lack of infrastructural facilities.

A negative attitude of students toward learning is also a major cause. According to (2011), some students purchase books but do not use them effectively. Ahmed (2003) confirmed that in most Nigerian schools, teaching and learning take place in an unfavorable environment with limited access to necessary materials.

The Nigerian has attempted to improve the quality of education in the country in a variety of ways, including the introduction of policies such as the Nigeria “National Policy on Education,” which was published in 1997 and revised in 1981 and 1990. The policy was revised to ensure that the educational sector supports the government's development goals.

The government has also recently taken initiatives to fund education. In 1996, the FGN/ODA Nigeria Community Education Programmes were launched. One of the initiatives' goals is to restructure educational funding arrangements. Alternative sources of education funding have been investigated. The Education Tax Fund was established by the government in 1995.

Another notable change has been the effort to update the curriculum; a committee for curriculum improvement has also been established. The Federal Ministry of Education's overall responsibility is to ensure systemic quality, to encourage and initiate innovations, and to ensure that schools adhere to minimum standards of acceptable educational practice. The National Commission for Colleges of Education was established in 1990 to establish minimum standards for all teacher education programs.

Many schools in Nigeria have been deficient in their operations and overall effectiveness as a result of problems with teachers and students. This issue affects both public and private educational institutions. While the public educational sector is plagued by mismanagement, several private schools, from primary to tertiary, fall short of expectations.


1.2. Research Problem Statement

Every country strives to provide quality education for its citizens because the future of that country is heavily reliant on it. Nigeria's educational system is still plagued by numerous issues. Among the issues are student learning skills, parental background, peer influence, teacher quality, and learning infrastructure. The educational sector is in charge of several critical functions in any economy. To become one, various experts from various fields must go through the educational system.

High academic performance is a necessary component of educational success. Conceptual learning, principles, and understanding are difficult for students to master, making them less motivated and interested in learning. This flaw causes the student to perform poorly.

It is disheartening to note that Nigerian students continue to perform poorly academically. This is especially true in the country's primary schools. Although, it appears that the government has been experimenting with various methods to address the issue of low academic performance in primary schools for some time.

One of the major causes of low academic performance in Nigerian schools is a lack of effective teaching methodology. In Nigeria, most teachers teach their students without the use of instructional materials. These are especially relevant in public schools, where overcrowding and unserious students are common.

Against this backdrop, the researcher examined the role of instructional materials in students' academic performance.


1.3. The study's objectives

The purpose of this research was to determine the role of instructional materials in students' academic performance. The specific goals are as follows:

determine the level of academic performance of Nigerian students
investigate the impact of instructional material utilization in Nigerian primary schools
Determine preventative measures for poor academic performance using instructional materials in Nigeria.

1.4. Research Issues

The following research questions will guide this study:

What is the level of academic performance of Nigerian students?
What effect does the use of instructional materials have in Nigerian primary schools?
What are the measures in Nigeria for preventing poor academic performance through the use of instructional materials?

1.5 Research Proposal

The following hypothesis guides the research:

H0: There is no significant relationship between instructional material and academic performance of students in Nigerian primary schools.


1.6. Importance of the Research

Higher academic performance, in particular, and the educational sector in general, are emphasized as critical to the success or growth of any economy, because higher academic performance prepares students to grow up as active, responsible, and reflective members of society.

Empirically, this study is being conducted to investigate the role of instructional materials in pupil academic performance in Nigeria in order to alleviate problems and propose solutions. This study will be important to the nation's academic sector because it will help guide the boards in charge of school management on how it can and should operate. It will instill in them the value of good academic performance to the country.

This study will be critical for investors, the government, and researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to various Nigeria stakeholders in order for them to take appropriate measures in the educational sector.

It is hoped that the exploration of secondary schools will provide investors and the government with a comprehensive understanding of how the educational system operates. It will add to the existing literature on the subject by empirically investigating the role of instructional materials in academic success. This research will be useful to;

The Academia: Members of academia will find the study useful because it will serve as a foundation for future research as well as a reference tool for academic works.

Government: The findings of this study will be shared with the government. Policy formulation and based on these findings would ensure the sector's development.

Investors: This study will be useful to investors, particularly those with a research interest, as it will guide their private investment decisions.

This study will, in the end, enlighten the educational sector's board of directors on the implications of academic success.


1.7. The Study's Scope

The purpose of this study is to look into the role of instructional materials in students' academic performance in some selected secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory.


1.8. Operational Terminology Definition

The following terms have been operationally defined.

Instructional materials are human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to facilitate, encourage, improve, and promote teaching and learning activities.
Academic performance: the extent to which a student, teacher, or institution met their short or long-term educational objectives.
Academic achievement: the ability to succeed in school.

1.9. The Study's Organization

This research is organized into five chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which includes the study's background, problem statement, research questions, research hypotheses, objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations of the study, and finally the study's organization.

The second chapter is a review of the literature, which includes conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, and a theoretical framework. The third chapter discusses research methodology, which includes research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, and instrument validity/reliability.

The fourth chapter is devoted to data presentation and analysis, as well as a discussion of the findings. The summary, conclusion, and recommendations are presented in Chapter 5.



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