THE IMPORTANCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH
The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of using instructional materials in the teaching of English. The purpose of which is to investigate the significance of English language in the educational sector as well as to propose solutions to Nigeria’s educational system’s problems.
The goals of this study were to determine the level of students’ academic performance in English language in Nigeria, investigate the impact of instructional material utilization on teaching English language in Nigerian schools, and devise measures to prevent low academic performance using instructional materials in Nigerian schools. The study’s scope is all secondary schools in Nigeria, with students and staff from some selected secondary schools participating. The Krashen’s Monitor Model theory was used as a framework.
The survey research design was used for this study, and the population targeted for this study consists of all secondary schools in Nigeria. A total of 50 schools were used as sample size, with 300 questionnaires administered to students and staffs, and the cluster sampling technique was used. The questionnaire was used for this study. The information gathered came from primary sources.
According to the findings of the data analysis, the level of student performance in English language in secondary schools is average, the level of students’ academic performance in English language taught with instructional materials is very high, and the problem of low academic performance in English language can be solved by using instructional materials such as prints and visuals.
Following the findings, it was recommended that the level of English language performance in secondary schools be raised, and that various strategies to help raise the level of English language performance in secondary schools, such as hiring only qualified teachers, be implemented.
Students should also be taught using instructional materials. Teachers should use various instructional materials such as prints, visuals, audio, and audio-visuals when teaching to aid comprehension. The study concludes that instructional materials should be used when teaching in secondary schools.
English language, instructional materials, academic performance, secondary school, educational system are all keywords.
1.1. The Study’s Background
Because English is the instrument of communication and the official language of Nigeria, it is critical that every individual residing in the country be able to speak fluent English. Given the importance of English in Nigeria, over 90% of transactions in the country are conducted in English, ranging from the educational to the health sectors.
As a result, proper English language thought is required in all educational institutions. According to Ferma (2003), “a person is functionally literate when he has acquired the knowledge and skill in reading and writing that enables him to effectively engage in all those activities in which literacy is normally assumed in his culture of group.”
The significance of using instructional materials in promoting students’ academic performance cannot be overstated. School teachers use instructional materials in their classroom instruction. Instructional materials, also known as teaching/learning materials, are any collection of materials that a teacher may use in teaching and learning situations to help achieve desired learning objectives.
Learning techniques should be used to change students’ perceptions of learning. Subskills developed through instructional materials should serve as the foundation for more meaningful learning in order to develop or maintain one’s specific skills. Teaching with instructional materials has been a part of education in Nigeria for many years. However, it is disheartening to note that students’ English language performance in secondary schools remains poor.
Because English is the language used to teach students, a student with a faulty foundation in English will struggle to cope with other subjects because comprehension becomes difficult, if not impossible. According to Oluwole (2008), “difficulties in fully grasping the contents and concepts of the various subjects of the curriculum taught in target language appear to be one of the problems that English as a first language students face in their particular course of study.”
Education is one of the most important aspects of human life, especially in this modern era when employers inquire about educational qualifications obtained when applying for a job. For many years, Nigeria’s educational system has been in crisis, ranging from the presence of unqualified teachers in the educational system to a lack of infrastructural facilities. A negative attitude of students toward learning is also a major cause. According to (2011), some students purchase books but do not use them effectively.
The Nigerian government has attempted to improve the quality of education in the country in a variety of ways, including the introduction of policies such as the Nigeria “National Policy on Education,” which was published in 1997 and revised in 1981 and 1990. The policy was revised to ensure that the educational sector supports the government’s development goals.
The government has also recently taken initiatives to fund education. In 1996, the FGN/ODA Nigeria Community Education Programmes were launched. One of the initiatives’ goals is to restructure educational funding arrangements. Alternative sources of education funding have been investigated. The Education Tax Fund was established by the government in 1995.
Another notable change has been the effort to update the curriculum; a committee for curriculum improvement has also been established. The Federal Ministry of Education’s overall responsibility is to ensure systemic quality, to encourage and initiate innovations, and to ensure that schools adhere to minimum standards of acceptable educational practice. The National Commission for Colleges of Education was established in 1990 to establish minimum standards for all teacher education programs.
Many secondary schools in Nigeria have been deficient in their operations and overall effectiveness as a result of teacher and student problems. There is also the issue of not being adequately equipped with the English language. This issue affects both public and private educational institutions. While the public educational sector is plagued by mismanagement, several private schools, from primary to tertiary, fall short of expectations.
1.2. Research Problem Statement
Every country strives to provide quality education for its citizens because the future of that country is heavily reliant on it. Nigeria’s educational system is still plagued by numerous issues. Among the issues are student learning skills, parental background, peer influence, teacher quality, and learning infrastructure. The educational sector is in charge of several critical functions in any economy. To become one, various experts from various fields must go through the educational system.
English proficiency is a critical factor in academic success. Students find it difficult to master concepts, principles, and understanding in the English language, which makes them less motivated and interested in learning. This flaw causes the student to perform poorly.
It is disheartening to note that Nigerian students continue to perform poorly in English. This is especially true in the country’s secondary schools. Although, it appears that the government has been experimenting with various methods to address the issue of low academic performance in English language in secondary schools for some time now.
One of the major causes of low academic performance in Nigerian schools is a lack of effective teaching methodology. In Nigeria, most teachers teach their students without the use of instructional materials. These are especially relevant in public schools, where overcrowding and non-serious students are common.
Against this backdrop, the researcher considered the study of the usefulness of instructional materials in the teaching of English.
1.3. The study’s objectives
The purpose of this study was to look into the usefulness of instructional materials in the teaching of English. The specific goals are as follows:
determine the level of academic performance of Nigerian students in English
investigate the impact of instructional material use on English language teaching in Nigerian schools
determine measures for preventing poor academic performance in Nigerian schools using instructional materials
1.4. Research Issues
The following research questions will guide this study:
What is the level of academic performance of Nigerian students in English?
What effect does instructional material use have on English language teaching in Nigerian schools?
What are the measures in Nigerian schools for preventing poor academic performance through the use of instructional materials?
1.5 Research Proposal
The following hypothesis guides the research:
H0: There is no significant relationship between instructional material and academic performance of Nigerian English language students.
1.6. Importance of the Research
Because English is the official language used during transactions in Nigeria, the importance of the English language in particular and the educational sector in general to the success or growth of any economy is emphasized. This empirical study is being conducted to investigate the relevance of using instructional materials in the teaching of English language in order to alleviate problems associated with the educational system.
This study will be important to the nation’s academic sector because it will help guide the boards in charge of school management on how it can and should operate. It will teach it the value of the English language in the country.
This study will be critical for investors, the government, and researchers because it will provide policy recommendations to various Nigeria stakeholders in order for them to take appropriate measures in the educational sector.
It is hoped that the exploration of secondary schools will provide investors and the government with a comprehensive understanding of how the educational system operates. It will add to the existing literature on the subject by empirically investigating the role of instructional materials in academic success. This research will be useful to;
The Academia: Members of academia will find the study useful because it will serve as a foundation for future research as well as a reference tool for academic works.
Government: The findings of this study will be shared with the government. Policy formulation and implementation based on these findings would ensure the sector’s development.
Investors: This study will be useful to investors, particularly those with a research interest, as it will guide their private investment decisions.
This study will, in the end, enlighten the educational sector’s board of directors on the implications of instructional materials.
1.7. The Study’s Scope
The purpose of this study is to look into the usefulness of instructional materials in the teaching of English in some selected secondary schools in Abuja.
1.8. Operational Terminology Definition
The following terms have been operationally defined.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and has since evolved into a global lingua franca. English is a type of language.
Secondary school: a school that serves as a bridge between elementary and secondary school, typically offering general, technical, vocational, or college preparatory courses.
Academic performance: the extent to which a student, teacher, or institution met their short or long-term educational objectives.
Instructional materials are human and non-human materials and facilities that can be used to facilitate, encourage, improve, and promote teaching and learning activities.
Academic achievement: the ability to succeed in school.
1.9. The Study’s Organization
This research is organized into five chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which includes the study’s background, problem statement, research questions, research hypotheses, objectives of the study, the significance of the study, the scope and limitations of the study, and finally the study’s organization.
The second chapter is a review of the literature, which includes conceptual literature, theoretical literature, empirical literature, and a theoretical framework. The third chapter discusses research methodology, which includes research design, population of study, sample size, sampling technique, method of data collection, instrument of data analysis, method of data analysis, and instrument validity/reliability.
The fourth chapter is devoted to data presentation and analysis, as well as a discussion of the findings. The summary, conclusion, and recommendations are presented in Chapter 5.