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Seasonal variations in the amounts of aflatoxins in specific pig diets in the humid tropics were studied.
the feedstuffs studied were palm kernel cake, bambara nut waste, cassava peels, and
grains used in brewing.

The investigation lasted for 32 weeks. Two bins were used to store these feedstuffs.
Each of the six LGAs of Enugu State’s Nsukka zone has piggery farms, in both dry and
wet seasons.

The feedstuff samples were collected and tested in the lab for aflatoxins.
AOAC technique of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) concentration levels with certain

Data were gathered from these feedstuffs’ aflatoxins laboratory examination and
The findings of this analysis revealed the presence of aflatoxins in all the samples used.

samples of feedstuffs, while the lowest aflatox concentration—0.011 ppb—was found in
While the trash from bambara nuts and cassava peels has the greatest level of aflatoxins,

Brewer wasted grains have 0.055ppb, which is within Nigeria’s tolerance limit for total
The measured quantities of aflatoxins (B1+B2+G1+G2), which are 20 ppb, are within range and pose no health risks.

less danger to pigs and pork consumers. The findings also demonstrate that there was no change that could be considered significant.

(P > 0.05) on the levels of aflatoxins in the feedstuffs across the piggery and at their sources.
locations of farms, connections between sources of feeds and seasons, and locations of farms with pigs
exchanges, as well as interactions with the season and feeding.

However, seasonon’s primary impact
The levels of aflatoxins, which were extremely high in the dry and wet seasons, respectively, were 0.022ppb and 0.044ppb.

Additionally, the primary effect of the feedstuffs’ aflatoxins was highly significant (P 0.01).
0.01) with the exception of brewer’s spent grains,

where it is noteworthy (P 0.05). Therefore, the aflatoxins
levels in contrast to the piggery farm’s source of feedstuffs according to the season

Especially during the wet season, locations for the analysed feedstuffs were significantly significant (P 0.01).
Exceptionally, waste from bambara nuts is significantly significant (P 0.01) during the dry season. There were greater.
Increases in the levels of aflatoxins in all of the feedstuffs sampled during the wet season compared to the dry season
season. It was therefore determined that the season affects the amount of aflatoxins in pig feeds.

Rainy season favours the metabolism and growth of toxic mould in the feedstuffs, which
yields more aflatoxins as a byproduct in this study’s dry season,

thus adequate
It is important to take preventative precautions and handle and store feed properly. as a result,
suggested that piggery owners take appropriate precautions and follow the
a variety of preservation storage techniques to lower the amounts of aflatoxins in feedstuffs,

particularly in
the wet season to improve pig performance and ensure customer safety when eating meat.

In order to satisfy man’s need for protein, consuming animal protein is crucial.
normal development and growth.

Animal-based sources of protein are excellent suppliers of
amino acids lysine and sulphur, which are less abundant in protein sources of plant origin (Omole, 1991).

In most of Africa, there is a severe lack of protein, particularly animal protein.
According to estimates, 10 grammes of animal protein are ingested daily on average as opposed to the
35 grammes per day is advised (ILCA, 1980; FAO, 1986).

How much animal protein is there?
consumption was predicted to be 8 grammes per cap per day, which is roughly 20 grammes less than the
Recommendation of the National Research Council of the United States of America (Obioha, 1992; FAO,

Nigeria has a land area of 9,237,680 km2, but according to Ogini (2001), the greater
Over 120 million of her people still struggle with extreme poverty and hunger. Atsu
According to a 2002 study, Nigerians do not consume enough animal protein.

Feeds and feed ingredients are very expensive, especially traditional energy and protein feed.
As a result, sources like fish meal, soybean cake, groundnut cake, wheat, sorghum, and maize meal were used.

a result of the intense competition between human users of food, feeds and feed for livestock, and industrial
resources, such as cereal grains used to make infant food formulae and maize used to make biofuel
Adegbola and Asaolu (2008); Agbede et al. (2002).

In monogastric animals, maize is a key source of energy.
feeds, particularly for pigs, chicken, and rabbits. Cereal grains are in high demand in Nigeria, and its
Since production has never been sufficient to meet the needs of the growing population,

There aren’t many extra grains available for feeding livestock. When it is offered, it is almost always highly expensive.
(Rhule,1999). The price of traditional feedstuffs, which are significant sources of protein and energy in
The popularity of monogastric diets has increased (Onu and Madubuike, 2006; Defang et al., 2008) because
their deficiency. Maize’s cost increased from roughly N30 to N70 per kilogramme in 2005.

(Rhule,1999). As the struggle for grain continues between humans, farm animals, and industrial applications
replacements for grains are being utilised more frequently in the feeding of poultry and cattle in order to
feed prices should be made more affordable (Babatunde and Hamzat, 2005).

This ongoing increase in price of
The traditional feed components used to create poultry and animal meals have required an
intense quest for inexpensive replacement feed ingredients that can,

if necessary, replace a specific fraction
Several of the substances used in conventional feed (Babatunde, 1985; Onyimonyi, 2002; Adesehinwa et al.,

Ugwu et al. (2008) identified the primary barriers to the rapid expansion of animal
The lack of affordable feed supply is a concern for Nigeria’s production business.

The current high price is largely caused by the shortage and expensive nature of conventional feedstuffs.
of finished animal products such milk, meat, and eggs (Adesehinwa et al., 2011; Rhule, 1999).

The cost of feed is possibly the most expensive input in intensively farmed animals, according to Ijaiya et al. (2004).
stocks and accounts for between 70 and 80 percent of the true cost of animal production.

With Onyimonyi,
Onukwufor (2003) had previously stated that scarcity was a key remedy for the issue of growing costs.

the search for novel and unconventional feed is necessary to find energy and protein sources for monogastrics.
resources that can replace a specific percentage of the known conventional resources
feedstuffs that don’t negatively impact an animal’s performance.

According to Esonu et al. (2001),
Among such alternatives that have been used to successfully replace the traditional feedstocks are
Brewer’s spent grains, stem/tuber residues, and cereal by-products such maize, rice bran, and wheat offal
yam or cassava peels, bambara nut trash, and bran.

Feeding behaviour have been researched by Fetuga et al. (1977), Iyayi et al. (2005), and Onyimonyi and Ugwu (2007).
monetary value of non-traditional feed supplies including palm kernel cake, bambara nut offal, rice husk, etc

cassava peels, and that using them to augment a specific section of the traditional
feedstuffs. Additionally, Onyimonyi and Ugwu (2007) noted that these non-traditional feed ingredients are
frequently encountered in South Eastern Nigeria.

Babatunde and Hamzat (2005) state that these
Alternative diets have proven effective at boosting animal and poultry performance.

and that using them in the design of rations will significantly reduce the demand and
expense of conventional feedstocks, which significantly raises the overall cost of raising pigs.

agro-industrial byproducts have various limiting limitations, according to Oduozo (1992).
and crop wastes are used as animal feeds in the following ways: procurement, storage, inadequate feed
being low in their intake, having a high fibre content, harmful and anti-nutrient compounds, and being high in
digestion, which in turn reduces animal performance.

Pigs are considered to be extremely prolific and very effective at converting feed, according to Serres (1992).
high-quality animal protein from nutrients. According to Adesehinwa (2008), pigs are employed to transform a
various foods are transformed into meat for human use.

Pigs’ ability to produce animal protein is constrained by
Numerous elements, including poor breeding stocks, inadequate nutrition and feeding, and poor
Pig production management procedures and housing; illness prevention and control (Holness, 1999).

Mycotoxins were described by Pitt and Miscamble (1995) as dangerous secondary metabolites produced by microbes.of the group of organisms known as fungi or moulds. Awan (2001) noted that people can
It is very frequent and ubiquitous for moulds to create poisons that could be harmful to both humans and animals.

According to Odoemela and Osu (2008), toxic fungi have been discovered during plant growth and harvest.
Storage storage of various food and feed products, as well as other agricultural output. As per Abarca et al. (2001),

There are five main fungal toxins that are economically significant and crucial for agriculture, including;
The fungi that create aflatoxins,

deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin, zearalenone, and fumunism
invasion of agricultural products and feed components in favourable temperature conditions
(25–30 °C) with a relative humidity of more than 80% (Gilbert and Vargas, 2003). As said by Farombi

(2006), these moulds contaminate numerous staple foods and agricultural products, including
while recognising that both humans and animals are exposed to, rice, corn, cassava, peanuts, and spices
Consuming tainted food and animal feed exposes one to aflatoxins.

When these fungus metabolites are
reduced performance, illness, or final death when consumed, breathed, or absorbed through the skin.
death in both humans and animals (CAST, 2003; Kuilman et al., 1998).

According to Atanda et al. (2008), several yeast and mould species were recovered from grains containing
With a combined frequency of occurrence of 39.1%, Fusarium verticilloides and Aspergillus flavus are the most common.

respectively, and 22.3%. Moulds have the capacity to produce trichothecenes and aflatoxins in
Agricultural items include wheat, peanuts, cottonseed, and other things (Atanda et al., 2008).

According to Adam (2000), Aspergillus species create aflatoxins. In line with Sashidhare et
Al. (1992) suggested that the physical condition of grains may contribute to the high occurrence of mycotoxins contamination.

the amount of oxygen, temperature, moisture content, and carbon (iv) oxide in the air.
According to reports, these elements may have an impact on the rate of mould infestation and growth in
grains and agricultural products, especially those in storage.

According to Adesehinwa et al. (2008), using alternative feedstuffs such cassava peels, brewery
Feeding pigs with leftover grains, palm kernel cake, and bambara nut waste can lower the cost of
production of pork.

These feedstuffs are purchased and kept in storage for a specific amount of time using various
Before feeding them to the pigs, use proper handling and storage methods. Throughout this time of storage and
The feedstuffs could be handled in a way that exposes them to aflatoxins and mould infection.

(Osweiler, 2006) Contamination. Poor feedstuff handling and storage, according to Henry (2009)
negatively impact the nutrition and quality of the feedstuffs provided to the animals (Akbar and

Majid, 2010).

Pig farmers can be feeding their animals mold-contaminated feed without knowing it.
recognising the contamination of such feedstuffs
Pigs with flatoxicosis consume less food, gain less weight, and grow more slowly.

Immunosuppression damages the liver and produces interleukin and antibodies.
haemorrhage (Lu, 2003; Sun and Chen, 2003; Creepy, 2002; Carvajah et al., 2003). Penn and
According to Miscamble (1995),

the buildup of aflatoxins, a significant mycotoxin in the
It is important to note that the feeds used to feed animals constitute a major threat to both animal and human health.

that they are to blame for several toxins and illnesses, including cancer, vascular, kidney,
abnormalities of the neurological system that may lead to the death of the animals or people consuming such animal products

(WHO 1979; Kuilman and colleagues 1998; CAST 2003). Akbar and Majid (2002) and Hussein and Brasel (2001)
(2010) noted that while aflatoxin B1 is the most dangerous of the four, there are also aflatoxins G1 and G2.

Of the aflatoxins, they are both common and dangerous (WHO, 1979; Pier, 1992). These poisons are extraordinarily toxic.

said to be teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic, and to pose health concerns to humans
characteristics over time in those who consume pork products with high levels of aflatoxins
Sun and Chen (2003); WHO (1979); Kuilman et al. (1998).

The study’s main goal was to ascertain how the season affected the aflatoxin burden of certain
in the tropical tropics, fodder for pigs. The particular goals were

i. to measure the amount of aflatoxins in pig feed

ii. to measure the amount of aflatoxins present in the feedstuffs that are kept on the pig farm

iii. To ascertain how the levels of aflatoxins in the sampled feedstuffs are impacted by the seasons.

iv. to assess the amounts of aflatoxin in feeds at the source and in the piggery farm’s storage

v. To ascertain how pig breeders see aflatoxins and their effects

This investigation is required to determine the amount of aflatoxins present in the various feedstocks used in
the steamy tropics while feeding pigs. According to Tewe and Adesehinwa (1995) and Ijaiya et al. (2004)

More than 70% of the cost of raising pigs goes towards feeding them. These feeds have been poisoned using
when fed to pigs, aflatoxins contamination as a result of mould infestation can have negative effects.

The harmful effects of tainted foods and feed ingredients (Pier, 1992; Odoemelam and Osu, 2008)
animal health reduces the pigs’ feed intake and lowers their immune systems, making them more susceptible to disease.

Low performance and death, particularly in piglets, were the results of the system (Sun and Chen, 2003; Lu,
2003). Due to the delayed maturity/growth rate, high labour costs, and other factors, it also raises the overall cost of pig production.

Death and the expense of treating/medicating affected pigs (CAST, 2003). Consumers of pork are also at
health concerns associated with aflatoxins exposure and buildup in pigs’ consumption of pork products
such feeds (Akbar and Majid, 2010; Akbar and Brasel, 2001; Ozsoy et al., 2005).

This may result in
human systemic disorders such as cancer (WHO 1979; CAST 2003). This research is required to
Analyse the amounts of aflatoxins in pig feeds and pig farmers’ knowledge of the effects on pigs.

production. Recent reports of epidemics of flatoxicosis in Kenya, Uganda, China, and India
as of 2005 (Lanyasunya et al.). Pestka et al. (1999) claimed that mycotoxin in particular

Dietary contamination with aflatoxins can cause subpar productivity and financial losses. hence the
The results of this study will provide an evaluation of the degree of exposure of pigs and consumers of pork.
with aflatoxins.

The outcomes will aid pig producers in taking actions to reduce the level of
Aflatoxin content of pig feed and consequences.

Additionally, it will boost pig producers’ income by
lowering pig production costs in the sampled areas.

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