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The feeding benefit of raw or parboiled rice offal as an energy source for bull fattening was investigated using 20 Bunaji bulls with a live weight range of 210-249kg and an age range of 2-3 years. Five dietary treatments were given to four bulls per treatment in a 22 factorial design with a common control.

Trials involving feeding and metabolism were run for 90 and 21 days, respectively. To assess the rumen pH, rumen ammonia nitrogen, and rumen total volatile fatty acid for all the bulls, rumen fluid was taken at intervals of 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours.

At 2% body weight, Digitaria smutsii concentrate and baseline diets were provided. According to the feed materials’ proximate and mineral composition, parboiled rice offal (PRO) contained 4.38% CP, 6.10% hemicellulose, and 36.91% silica while raw rice offal (RRO) had 7.69% CP, 6.64% hemicellulose, and 24.86% silica.

Only magnesium was higher in RRO’s mineral composition. The experimental diets’ CP levels ranged from 19.69 to 20.44%, whereas their ME values ranged from 10.86 to 11.16 MJ/kg DM. The range for the crude fibre is 14.59 to 17.84%.

The results of the fattening trial revealed that bulls fed the control diet (NRO) and diets containing RRO and PRO saw no appreciable differences in concentrate, hay, total dry matter intakes, or daily weight gain (P>0.05). On the intake of concentrate, hay, and total feed intake, the inclusion level of rice offal had no statistically significant impact (P>0.05).

However, the bulls on the control diet substantially (P0.05) gained more live weight than the bulls receiving the 20 and 30 percent inclusion of rice offal. Intake of concentrate, hay, total feed, and daily live weight growth were comparable for the bulls (P>0.05) regardless of the kind and quantity of rice offal included.

All of the experimental bulls gained weight on average, which was above 1 kilogramme and ranged from 1.11 kilogrammes to 1.29 kilogrammes. Rice type did not significantly (P>0.05) alter rumen parameters, but inclusion level did considerably (P0.05).

The findings demonstrated that Rumen pH at 6 hours post-feeding at 0% (6.63) and 30% (6.76) were comparable (P>0.05), but substantially different (P0.05) from 20% (6.93) inclusion level.

At 0 hours prior to feeding, total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) were not significant, with 0% being comparable to inclusion levels of 20 and 30%. Bulls on diets with 20% inclusion levels had the greatest TVFA value (44.70 mol), while those on 30% had the lowest (23.49 mol).

The effects of varying the inclusion levels of RRO and PRO on rumen pH and TVFA at various sample times were not significant (P>0.05). At 2 hours after feeding, a significant (P0.05) difference was seen for rumen ammonia nitrogen (RAN). Bulls on 30% PRO had the highest value (22.41g/100g), and bulls on 20% PRO had the lowest value (14.80g/100g).

With the exception of the spleen, which is higher for RRO, the carcass evaluation results showed a significant (P0.05) difference with rice type for the legs, spleen, empty stomach, empty intestine, inguinal fat, and abdominal fat, with PRO being higher.

At different levels of rice offal inclusion, there were differences in dressing percentage, beef carcass percentage, meat-to-bone ratio, legs, hide, tail, empty stomach, empty intestine, inguinal fat, kidney fat, abdominal fat, depth of chest fat, testis, and blood that were statistically significant (P 0.05).

Significant (P 0.05) results were found for the carcasses of bulls fed diets containing various amounts of raw or parboiled rice offal in the areas of the legs, xv hide, empty stomach, empty intestine, inguinal fat, and abdominal fat.

For bulls on both RRO and PRO, economic indicators like cost per kg gained, net profit, and return to naira invested on feed (RIF) were comparable (P>0.05).

Bulls on the control diet had the highest daily weight gain (1.29) kg, whereas those on the 20% and 30% diets had statistically equivalent (1.15 kg and 1.14 kg) daily weight gains (P>0.05).

Gain value was substantial (P 0.05), however it fell as the inclusion level rose. There were no differences that were significant (P>0.05) in the values of weight gain (VWG), NB, RIF, Feed costs and growth costs per kilogramme for bulls at various levels of RRO or PRO inclusion.

The cost of feed decreased from N25,001.10 to a range of N22,115.50-N23,639.6 (or by around 5.45%-11.54%) with the addition of raw or parboiled rice offal. The trial’s findings led to the conclusion that meat from bulls fed 30% rice offal, whether raw or parboiled, was of higher quality due to its low fat content.

Similar to this, up to 30% of the maize offal in the meals of fattened Bunaji bulls may be replaced with rice offal of any sort (raw or parboiled) without having a negative impact on live weight. Farmers can therefore adopt it.

Chapter One,


According to the FAO (2009), Nigeria is home to 16 million cattle. The Zebu breeds, which include Bunaji, Rahaji, Gudali, etc., and the Taurines breeds, which include Kuri, Keteku, N’dama, etc., make up this group (Blench, 1999).

White Fulani cattle make up around 60% of the animals that are fattened by small-scale cattle fattening operations; this breed is said to have a greater dressing percentage than other native breeds of cattle (Adamu and Alawa, 2005).

In Nigeria, the fulani people who live a nomadic lifestyle control the majority of the country’s cattle, or around 51% of the country’s total cattle population (Ahamefule et al., 2007).

Although the practise of fattening cattle is not new in Nigeria, it has earned recognition as a significant enterprise in the livestock sector. It gives the farmer year-round employment, allowing him to earn additional revenue, and it also gives him a quick source of meat to meet the enormous demand for high-quality protein needed in human diets.

The majority of the country’s ruminant livestock is found in Northern Nigeria. However, the region is distinguished by a prolonged and strong dry season that lasts between 6 and 9 months and causes a severe feed deficit for ruminants.

According to Lamidi et al. (2008), among the cheap and plentiful agricultural byproducts available to farmers for fattening include maize stover, maize offal, rice straw, rice bran, wheat offal, sorghum panicle, and groundnut haulms.

Research efforts have been focused on harnessing and improving the use of the region’s plentiful crop wastes and agricultural byproducts for cattle feeding. However, according to Fetuga and Tewe (1985), livestock fed with agricultural leftovers and agro-industrial byproducts may experience significant weight gains.

Without negatively influencing the performance of the animals, the use of these agricultural residues and agro-industrial byproducts at affordable cost could increase productivity and lower the cost of compounded feeds.

Given the high cost, high demand, and competition between humans and cattle for the same feed resources, this becomes even more crucial (Iyeghe Erakpotobor et al., 2002).

Therefore, it is necessary to consider alternative cereal sources that are more plentiful and affordable than maize offal as a source of energy for beef cattle fattening. Finding alternative energy sources is important, and rice offal is one such byproduct.

The new Presidential effort on rice production in Nigeria, which aims to encourage local rice production in order to lessen the nation’s overdependence on imported rice, has the potential to increase the availability of these by-products in the future (James, 2011).

An agricultural byproduct that may be used to feed livestock is rice offal. In many Nigerian towns and villages where rice is grown, it is readily accessible year-round in considerable amounts. It is a by-product of the paddy rice’s one-step milling process, which yields just two products:

the rice seeds fit for human consumption and the waste product, which is composed of rice husk, rice bran, rice polishing, and small amounts of broken grains and has a high silica and fibre content (Dafwang, 2006). According to Duru and Dafwang (2010), 40% of paddy rice is rice offal.

Small milling machines in Nigeria are used to process the majority of the country’s rice, which results in vast amounts of rice offal that, until recently, were frequently burned off to avoid waste pollution (Dafwang and Damang, 1996).

According to NAERLS and NFRA (2009), Nigeria now produces 475.52 million tonnes of paddy rice, but the nation has the capacity to produce an additional 190 million tonnes of rice offal, demonstrating the easy accessibility of rice offal as a source of animal feed.

1.Aims And Objectives Of The Study
The study’s specific goals are to:

1. Determine the impact of a diet including raw or parboiled rice offal and its level of inclusion on the fattening performance of Bunaji bulls in an effort to lessen reliance on maize offal as a source of energy for fattening cattle.

2. To assess the economics of feeding raw or parboiled rice offal to Bunaji bulls to increase their size.

3. To assess the impact on the carcass yield of fattened Bunaji bulls of a diet including raw or parboiled rice offal.

1.2 Null Hypotheses
1. The performance of the Bunaji bulls is unaffected by a diet including raw or parboiled rice offal or the amount of it.

2. There is no economic advantage to feeding raw or parboiled rice offal to Bunaji bulls to make them fat.

3. Raw or parboiled rice offal in the diet has no effect on the amount of carcass that fattened Bunaji bulls produce.

1.3 Alternate Hypothesis (Ha) 1. The amount of raw or parboiled rice offal consumed in a diet affects the Bunaji bulls’ performance.

2. It is advantageous economically to fatten Bunaji bulls with a diet that includes raw or parboiled rice offal.

3. The carcass yield of fattened Bunaji bulls is affected by the consumption of raw or parboiled rice offal.

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