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This study looked at how vitamin E and selenium supplements in the diet affected the ability of rabbit Does and Kits to reproduce. In the experiment, four groups of mixed-breed rabbits (New Zealand white, Dutch black, and Chinchilla) aged 8 to 9 months and weighing an average of 1.98 0.6 kg were taken into consideration.

Three did and a buck to serve them made up each bunch. Throughout the trial, group 1 Does acted as the control group, and all the bucks were fed the basal diet.

For four weeks, the does in groups 2, 3, and 4 received the base diet with supplements of 40 mg of vitamin E (VE), 0.3 mg of selenium (Se), and 40 mg of vitamin E plus 0.3 mg of selenium (VE + Se).

Except for the body weight of the litter at birth, which was significantly (P>0.05) increased by Se and significantly decreased by VE + Se supplementation, and weight at weaning, which was increased in the Se group, the study found no significant (P>0.05) differences in the reproductive performances of Does.

Blood haemoglobin, PCV, RBCs, and LH were identical to the control (P>0.05). Blood neutrophils rose in the Se and VE groups. Eosinophil and FSH considerably rose (P>0.05) in the VE+ Se group, while lymphocyte dramatically decreased (P>0.05).

Eosinophil and lymphocyte counts, however, were considerably (P>0.05) lower in the VE group. The therapies had no effect on Se, SOD, or glutathione peroxidase, which are oxidative enzymes (P>0.05). The MDA and reduced glutathione values were considerably (P>0.05) higher in the Se group.

The VE and Se group had significantly lower levels of glutathione. MDA was significantly elevated in the VE + Se group, whereas Catalase was dramatically decreased (P>0.05).

The therapies did not, however, have an impact on other oxidative enzymes (P>0.05). In conclusion, supplementing Does with Se at 0.3 mg/kg diet improved their FSH and oxidative enzyme status in addition to their reproductive performance.




The lack of animal protein in emerging tropical nations has long been acknowledged, and it continues to be one of the key obstacles to Nigeria's achievement of food security. According to estimates, each individual needs roughly 75 grammes of protein per day, of which 40 grammes should be from animal protein (Akinwumi, ).

According to FAO (2014), the average daily intake of animal protein is 7g, which shows that animal products make up less than 16% of total protein consumption.

As a result of the population growth not being matched by an increase in animal per capital output, the problem is getting worse over time (Akunwumi, 2011).

Meat supply and demand have had trouble coordinating. The issue persists since cattle, whose nomadic production technique does not promote rapid output, provide 85% of the nation's meat supply (Dung, 1992).

The federal has developed strategies to increase domestic cattle output through its Agricultural Transformation agenda of 2011, utilising better technologies and management practises to this purpose. However, the effects of these programmes have not yet been determined.

The use of the advantages that rabbits (Mailafia et al., 2010) and other micro-livestock animals have over cattle to bridge the gap between meat demand and supply still leaves the country with a short fall in supply due to the numerous issues it is facing (Nworgu, 2007).

These advantages include a short gestation period, high reproductive potential, rapid growth rate, and ability to utilise forage. Utilising quickly growing livestock species like rabbits,

which have advantages in small-holder subsistence-type integrated farming in developing countries (Mailafia et al., 2010), is one way to increase food production and close the meat demand-supply gap in Nigeria (Owen et al., 2008).

The decline in the production of animal meat in Nigeria has been partially linked to diseases, the affordability of feeds, as well as competition between these food animals and people for the available grains.

Therefore, there is a need to raise knowledge of the high potential for producing rabbit meat and to promote its usage in developing nations as a real solution to the shortage of animal food (Ajala and Balogun, 2014), particularly in Nigeria and other tropical African nations.

The pseudo-ruminant rabbit grows and reproduces quickly (Hassan et al., 2012; Mailafia et al., 2010). If properly fed and cared for, a buck and two does can produce more than fifty (50) weaned bunnies annually, or roughly one per week (

In terms of protein content, rabbit meat is superior to that of other farm animals (Aduku and Olukori, 1990). In comparison to beef, pork, chicken, or lamb (Aduku and Olukosi, 1990; Lane 1999), it also has less cholesterol, fewer calories, and a smaller percentage of fat (Mailafia et al, 2010).

Rabbit meat falls within the category of white meat and is considered safe for ingestion by both those with various medical issues and those following a strict diet who want to reduce their intake of fat (Ahsan, 2014).

Rabbit meat is highly recommended for cardiac patients and persons with cholesterol issues due to its low fat and cholesterol- qualities.

Due to its relatively low salt content, it has been deemed safe for consumption by people with high blood pressure caused by a sodium intolerance. It is also used to cure atherosclerosis and restore normal metabolism in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy (Ahsan, 2014).

Due to its superior meat quality compared to other livestock species like cattle, sheep, and goats, the rabbit has been seen to outperform them all. The most effective animal for converting feed into flesh is the rabbit (Agunbiade, 2001).

According to Lebas and Matheron (1982), producing one kilogramme of rabbit meat only requires a fourth of the feed energy needed to create an equivalent amount of lamb, beef, or pig.Therefore, the rabbit has the potential to address the issue of the availability of meat in many developing nations.

Through adequate feeding, rabbits' abilities and performance can be best explored (Iheukwumere, 2005). According to Robinson (1996), biological, dietary, and physical environmental factors all have an impact on a rabbit's ability to reproduce.

In order to increase productivity, more feed and nutrients should be given to pregnant rabbits (Leban, 1983; Efiong and Weger, 2007). It is well known that malnutrition slows growth, delays puberty, lowers conception rates, reduces ovarian follicular growth, and impedes both nutritional and foetal growth through fatal / maternal competition for growth.

According to Devasagayam et al. (2004), reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive molecules made of oxygen that are produced naturally as a by- of regular cellular oxygen metabolism. ROS are important for cell signalling and homeostasis.

When the environment is under stress, the body produces a lot more ROS, which damages cell structures and causes oxidative stress (Rada and Lets, 2008).

The cells of the animal body have developed a variety of methods, including inactivating them (anti-oxidation) to counteract and repair the negative consequences of these ROS (Pierce et al., 2009; Argawal and Allamaneni, 2004).

Animals that are under oxidative stress have lower fertility than those that are not (De Bruin et al., 2002) and the oxidant status of the animal body might affect embryo development (Dennery, 2004).

There are different types of antioxidant enzymes made in vivo in the animal body from metallic co-factors like selenium (Se), and vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that processes antioxidant characteristics (Surai, 2003).

It has been demonstrated that vitamins and minerals are crucial for the development of an animal's reproductive (De Bruin et al., 2002).and reduces the function of oxidative stress in the onset and development of numerous diseases since it contributes significantly to degenerative pathologies (Surai, 2003).

To increase the levels of vitamins and minerals in animal feeds, vitamin and mineral supplements are employed. Because vitamins and minerals are employed in animal production,

it is important to determine the extent to which these dietary supplements can be used profitably and successfully to increase reproduction in micro-livestock.


The study is intended to assess the usage of selenium and vitamin E as potential to improve the performance of the does and kits in response to the need for optimal nutrition of rabbits.

The study's particular goals are as follows:

to ascertain how dietary selenium and vitamin E supplementation affect a doe's ability to reproduce
to ascertain the impact of selenium and vitamin E dietary supplements on the post-partum development of rabbit kits.
to ascertain the impact of dietary selenium and vitamin E supplementation on rabbit does' oxidative and gonadotropin status.

One of the key elements that ensures high output in a rabbit farm is efficient reproduction. To achieve this, producers must consider management techniques that will enhance the physiology, behaviour, and overall health of the animal.

Minerals and vitamins are crucial for an animal's development and reproductive health. These roles must be highlighted, and recommendations must be made for the nutritional and medicinal requirements of these chemicals in animal production, particularly in reproduction and the development of kits, since these serve as the foundation for this experimental study.

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