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A 16-week study was carried out to determine how biostimulation affected behaviour, growth, and

and rabbit reproduction. 75 adult, crossbred rabbits weighing between 2.6 and 2.70 kilogrammes, consisting of

25 bucks, who were 8–10 months old, and 50 nulliparous does that were 6-7 months old were used for this.

study. Five treatment groups were assigned to the rabbits in a completely random manner.

(CRD). There were 10 nulliparous does and 5 bucks in each treatment. The study strategy included

a one-buck-to-two-does exposure ratio, which indicates five replications for each treatment and each

reproduction with two does and one buck in it. The does in the control group, however, weren’t

vulnerable to any buck. The females in the treatment groups were segregated into opposing cages.

1 buck for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age, at a distance of 2.5 cm between the bucks and 2 does.

exposure. The findings revealed that the does’ behavioural responses ranged from flattening at

There were substantial differences between mounting in a corner, a circle, without lordosis, and with lordosis.

across all treatments, (P0.05). Variations in vulva colour frequency range from white to red to

Pink was seen throughout the treatments. The biostimulated does’ reproductive abilities

Additionally, the average litter weight, pregnancy rate, and gestation time varied significantly (P 0.05).

were higher in the treated groups at weaning. Response time, sperm motility, and live-cell percentage

sperm, the proportion of dead sperm, and the proportion of coiling tails of the exposed bucks varied.

significantly different from the control (P 0.05). There was proof of a linear rise in hormonal

as exposure time increased to 7 and 14 days, profiles (estradiol and testosterone) were measured.

respectively. Consequently, this research implies that biostimulation may be a useful strategy for

raising rabbit reproductive efficiency. It was also discovered that subjecting rabbit does to

Rabbit bucks’ reproductive health could be negatively impacted if they wait more than 7–14 days before mating.


performance. Farmers are advised to expose rabbit does to rabbit bucks as a result.

days before artificial insemination or mating for improved reproductive performance.



There is a great deal of interest in the manufacturing of because to the rising need for animal protein.

animals like rabbits that have recent generations (Obinne and Okorie, 2008). The growth of

Nigeria’s cattle business has a lot of potential to close the supply and demand gap.

If consideration is given to the demand for animal protein in the nation (Apantaku et al., 1998)

little livestock like rabbits. Rabbit meat is equivalent in composition to and in terms of quality to

superior to meat from larger animals (ruminants) and poultry, very tasty, and low in fat.

cholesterol and salt (Atteh, 2004). Frequently, rabbits are raised for their soft meat.

consumption by humans. Additionally, the most significant economic element for rabbits is high prolificacy.

production (Nofal et al., 2005; Belhadi, 2004). In addition, rabbits exhibit a variety of other characteristics.

They have positive traits that are helpful to subsistence farming, like their modest body size.

and a brief (between 30 and 31 days) gestation. Daily weight gain is proportional to the rate of

They have a quick development rate and early sexual maturation due to their body weight. These elements are

responsible for why rabbits reach sexual maturity 30% faster than other animals in terms of weight

making them suited for use as tiny livestock that produce meat in impoverished nations (Arijeniwa et al.,

Ajayi et al., 2005; 2000).

The amount and frequency of reproduction determine the profitability of rabbit production.

From a litter, weaned kits (Castellini et al., 2010). Despite the fact that rabbits are reflex ovulators,

Sometimes, ovulation after instantaneous mating does not lead to successful conception. The

intrinsic rabbit procreativity is currently hampered by biochemical, biophysical, and environmental factors.

problems that negatively affect their performance, thus it’s necessary to apply some


biological methods to increase their ability to reproduce. Biostimulation techniques are organic

and less expensive options to enhance animals’ reproductive efficiency. such techniques

have been discovered or tested in bulls, bucks, and hamsters (Bailey et al., 2005; Bonanno et al., 2011).

(Kasimanickam et al., 2007) and rams (Cooke et al., 2001). Other methods to encourage a stable

The use of hormonal treatments improves animal reproductive performance (Rebollar et al.,

2006). However, this raises personnel costs and could have harmful impacts on health because of residual


the practise of enhancing cattle production by the use of exogenous substances like hormones and antibiotics

flies in the face of consumer perception. According to Castellini et al. (2006), the European

In light of the residues left by hormones, community policy may limit their use.

the desire to maintain a natural meat quality and considerations for animal welfare in meat. Due to these factors,

The International Rabbit Reproduction Group (IRRG, 2005) has made significant efforts to

put up substitute techniques that don’t require hormone use in rabbit production in order

to make an animal more sexually receptive during artificial or spontaneous mating. Several

techniques to biostimulation including manipulating animals (doe-gathering) during the semen cycle

collecting, separating the dam and her litter, evaluating various reproductive rhythms, or remating

The buck effect, photoperiods, intervals, and adoption of various feeding programmes have all been attempted.

to avoid using hormones during animal reproduction (Ojeda and McCann, 2000).

These biostimulation techniques are thought to promote the release of luteinizing hormones and gonadotropins.

LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) via olfactory, ocular, and pheromonal signals.

and tactile cues produced by the anterior pituitary gland while being affected by various releasing variables.

(Ojeda and McCann, 2000) from the hypothalamus. The discharge of LH and FSH offers

steroidal feedback to the hypothalamus that maintains proper ovarian function


(Frink, 1998) Cycle. However, certain biostimulation techniques’ results and workings are still unknown.

and the impact of such behavioural reactions on how well rabbit does reproduce.

Bucks have not been adequately explained. Consequently, the goal of the current study was to assess.

the impact of biostimulation on nulliparous rabbit does’ reproductive efficiency as well as

to determine its impact on the buck’s semen qualities.


To lessen the impact of a growing global population on the demand for meat and animal products

Producing products from rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a realistic alternative because to their

rapid development, early maturity, great genetic selection potential, and high feed

conversion effectiveness and cost-effective space utilisation (Hassan et al., 2012). To make a

Continual evolution of the rabbit industry, breeds, and breeding techniques

obstacles should be researched and identified. However, the rabbit does’ terrible performance during

the need for the introduction of this service and the accompanying decline in ovulation and/or conception

of feasible and affordable methods for enhancing rabbit reproductive. Sexual reactions

Sensitivity female rabbits to male olfactory, acoustic, and visual cues has not been studied.

ovulation is thought to be caused by mating via a neuroendocrinological mechanism that has not been well researched.

reflex that causes an increase in LH (Bakker and Baum, 2000).

According to Frank (1966), there may be some pheromones released by the sebaceous glands of

To make does more sexually receptive, rabbit bucks are used. Additionally, it has been asserted that rabbit does

send particular signals that draw in male rabbits and convey information about her sexual status.

(1990; Hudson and Distel). The specific characteristics of the pheromones or messages are still unknown.

It’s unclear what the male and female rabbits exchanged. Nevertheless, it seems that male

In nulliparous does, presence increases receptivity and fertility (Berepudo et al., 1993), although


(Kustos et al., 2000; Eiben et al., 2001; Bonanno et al., 2003) Not in lactating does.

One method that has been tested on various species and looks to be effective is biostimulation.

potential for increasing animal reproduction (Theau-Clement, 2005). Moreover, several

Evidence has established that using exogenous gonadotropins such equine

Using chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) to enhance rabbit reproductive performance has led to

resistive effects, which lead to a drop in pregnancy rates and a rise in mortality rates

in the wake of frequent or intense therapy (Theau-Clément, 2007). Therefore, a useful

and effective non-hormonal method for increasing rabbit fertility is still necessary. This

study’s goal was to assess the reproductive effects of various exposure lengths.

performance of rabbit does and buck in determining the optimal exposure time.



This study’s main goal was to assess the impact of various exposure durations on

the effectiveness of rabbit does’ and bucks’ reproduction. The precise goals were to

Identify the:

Behaviour of female rabbits exposed to male rabbits at the time of mating, part a

b. Rabbit does and bucks’ productive behaviour during various biostimulation times.

c. Rabbit does and bucks’ reproductive efficiency and hormonal profiles over a range of time periods

using biostimulation


H0: Rabbit does and bucks behave normally in response to biostimulation.

H1: Biostimulation has an impact on how rabbit does and bucks behave.

Ho: Both rabbit does and bucks act productively regardless of biostimulation.

H1: Biostimulation affects how productively rabbit does and bucks perform.


Ho: Biostimulation had no impact on the hormonal profile and reproductive efficiency of rabbit does.

both bucks

H1: Biostimulation has an impact on the hormonal profile and reproductive efficiency of rabbits.

females and males


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