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POLITICAL SCIENCE

EFFECT OF ETHNIC SEGREGATION ON EMPLOYMENT IN ABIA STATE CIVIL SERVICE

EFFECT OF ETHNIC SEGREGATION ON IN ABIA STATE SERVICE

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EFFECT OF ETHNIC SEGREGATION ON EMPLOYMENT IN ABIA STATE CIVIL SERVICE

CHAPITRE ONE

1.1 Background of The Study

Cartographic determination of ethnic boundaries was influenced by the quest for imperial hegemony (Ukiwo, 2005). So, what exactly is ethnicity? Simply put, ethnicity is a social phenomenon related with interactions between members of different ethnic groups (Nnoli, ).

According to Jinadu (2004), ethnicity is a social construct that is mobilised for competitive goals by political parties, public intellectuals and university students, the military,

public bureaucracies, trade unions, and so on. For him, ethnicity's political significance is positioned inside the country's framework of social relations of production.

Ethnic groupings are social formations that are distinguished by communal boundaries. In Nigeria, colonialism first introduced the concept of ethnicity through its segregation policy, which fostered mutual distrust and acrimony. For example, it was official British policy in Northern Nigeria to segregate the

Attoh (2009) distinguishes Hausa- Fulani from their Southern counterparts. Initially, migrants and indigenous coexisted peacefully in the native city. This, however, contradicted the official assumption that only conflict characterised relations between African tribes.

As a result, the migrants were forced to dwell in Sabon- Gari, while the natives were forced to settle in Tudun- Wada. However, in cities such as Katsina and Gwandu, where the Emirs rejected the Sabon-Gari strategy, natives and migrants coexisted peacefully.

Nigerians have internalised this sort of discrimination as a result of their socialisation into this colonialist world view. Language, culture, or both may be relevant communal factors. Language has been a vital variable in Nigeria since people tend to relate more with those with whom they share a same language (Kparapo).

Ethnicity as a phenomenon is behavioural in form and conflictual in content, in the sense that people from different ethnic groups perceive one other as competitors rather than compatriots in the fight for resources. It can only exist in a plural political state with over 350 language groups, such as Nigeria.

Ethnicity is produced by the interactions of various ethnic groups inside the political state. The conflictual nature of Nigeria originates from inter-ethnic struggle for finite resources. Inter-ethnic discrimination in , housing,

admissions to educational institutions, scholarships, marriages, distribution of welfare benefits, and other areas is common. Nepotism and corruption are frequently present.

“In reality, ethnicity is a very complex phenomenon,” writes Okwudiba Nnoli (2007). It is always linked to political, economic, social, religious, and other social perspectives and relationships. As a result, ethnicity manifests itself in political dominance, economic exploitation, psychological oppression, and manipulation.”

The most popular definition of an ethnic group is that it is made up of people who have a common ancestor. In other words, this term refers to people who can trace their ancestors back to a single progenitor.

Most definitions and interpretations of the term by social scientists appear to be based on this viewpoint. For example, Max Weber (2008) defined ethnic groups as “those human groups that entertain a subjective belief in their common descent.”

According to Nnoli (2008), the fundamental characteristics of ethnicity are “exclusiveness manifested in inter-group competition, conflict in relation to stiff competition, and the consciousness of being one in relation to others.”

Mair (2003) identifies three major ethnic features in addition to these. “For one thing, it is a culturally specific practice and a distinct set of symbols and beliefs, particularly the way an ascribed identity is given contemporary construction through socialisation and mobilisation in cultural and political movements.”

Two, it is a belief in a common beginning, perhaps requiring the existence or fantasy of a common past. Finally, it entails a sense of belonging to a group that is defined in opposition to others.”

A careful analysis of these three factors on which ethnic identity is based reveals an attempt in literature to bridge the gap between those who believe ethnicity is a primordial inheritance and others who believe it is historically or socially produced.

Indeed, there is a growing inclination to reject the early efforts to conceptualising ethnicity. These approaches include those that emphasise ethnicity as primal (Geertz, 2003) and those that show ethnicity as a relic of the past that modernization – access to the media, western education, and urbanisation – are projected to diminish with time.

1.2 Statement of the Problems

An ethnic group, according to Mair, a liberal scholar and anthropologist, is a collection of people who share the same historical experience, culture, language, and belief about the future (Mair, 2002).

Other liberal theorists, such as Zolberg (2008), Oyovbaire (2004), Mitchell (2004), Young (2006), and Stavenhagen (2007), regard ethnicity as an unavoidable result of modernization, economic progress, and political development, particularly in Africa.

Liberal theorists argue that an ethnic group consists of people who have a belief that they share common interests and fate, and they prefer to advocate cultural symbolism to demonstrate their unity. Ethnic groupings differ from other groups in that they contain people from all walks of life and social classes.

It is suggested that ethnic insignia is unavoidable. Kasfir (2006) proposes four methods for identifying ethnic groups. Culture (i), language (ii), customary political organisation (iii), and territoriality (iv). To summarise, members of an ethnic group must share a shared culture, language, and customs, as well as inhabit the same land.

1.3 objectives of The study

The purpose of this study is to look into the impact of ethnic segregation on employment in the Abia state civil service. The following are the precise aims of this research work:

1. To investigate the impact of ethnic separation on the growth of the Abia State Civil Service Commission.

2. To assess the impact of ethnic segregation on the welfare of Abia state civil service employees.

3. Determine the impact of ethnic segregation on the development of the Nigerian .

4. To identify the many causes of ethnic segregation in the civil service of Abia state. Also, propose potential remedies to the concerns noted.

1.4 Research Questions

The researcher posed the following question based on the aims stated above:

1. How does ethnic segregation affect the development of the Abia State Civil Service Commission?

2. What are the implications of ethnic segregation on the welfare of Abia state civil service employees?

3. How does ethnic segregation effect Nigeria's economic development?

4. What are the major causes of ethnic segregation in the public service of Abia state?

1.5 Hypothesis Statement

Ho: The development of the Abia State Civil Service Commission is unaffected by ethnic segregation.

H1: Ethnic segregation has a substantial impact on the growth of the Abia State Civil Service Commission.

Ho: Ethnic segregation has a substantial impact on the welfare of Abia state civil service employees.

H1: Ethnic segregation has a major impact on the welfare of Abia state civil service employees.

Ho: Ethnic segregation has no effect on Nigeria's economic development.

H1: Ethnic segregation has an impact on the development of the Nigerian economy.

1.6 Significance of the Research

This research will be extremely beneficial to:

It will assist the researcher in learning more about the influence of ethnic segregation on employment in Abia state civil service.

Workers in Abia State: It will also be of considerable value to Abia State workers since it will broaden their understanding of the impact of ethnic segregation on employment in Abia State government service.

This study would be extremely beneficial to the country of Nigeria since it will assist policymakers in developing laws that will prohibit ethnic segregation in Nigerian civil service employment.

1.7 Scope and Limitations of The Study

The research will concentrate on the impact of ethnic segregation on employment in the Abia state civil service.

1.8 Limitations of The Study

During the course of this investigation, the researcher faced a number of issues, including:

FUND – This included a lack of funds to move around and see the commission; the researcher had to visit the area more than twice; and the researcher also needed enough money to source material, which was a hindrance. The researcher was also limited by the high expense of transportation in the city due to the great distance.

shortage OF RESEARCH MATERIALS: One of the challenges encountered by the researcher as a result of this research activity was a shortage of research materials.

RESPONDENTS' VIEWS: Another limitation for the researcher was that some of the respondents found it difficult to convey their views on the topic issue.

Based on the foregoing, the researcher attempted to conduct a detailed study on the influence of ethnic segregation on employment in Abia state civil service.

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

Ethnic group: A group of people who identify with one another because they have a shared language, ancestors, social, cultural, or national experiences.

Ethnic Affiliation: This is a group whose members all belong to the same ethnic group.

globalisation (or globalisation) is the process of worldwide integration that results from the exchange of world views, products, ideas, and other cultural factors.

A social system is a systematic series of interrelationships that exist between individuals, groups, and institutions to form a whole.

Politics system: This is a political and government system. It is frequently contrasted with the legal system, the economic system, the cultural system, and other social systems.

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