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Due to the lack of proper cephalometry among Nigerians, a comparative study of cephalometric indices among the Igede and Idoma ethnic groups of Benue was conducted. For this study, 425 seemingly healthy adults from the Igede and Idoma ethnic groups in Benue State, Nigeria, with no physical head or facial malformations were randomly chosen.

They ranged in age from 17 to 40. of the two ethnic groups were clearly proved to be satisfactory. The study involved 425 participants, of whom 158 were Igede and 267 were Idoma, with mean ages of 22.60.45 and 23.00.47 years, respectively.

Head length, head width, bizygomatic distance, upper facial length, lower facial length, total facial length, nose width, and skull height were the anthropometric measurements taken from which the cephalometric indices were derived.

The outcome revealed that the Igede and Idoma tribes of Benue State had statistically significant differences (P 0.05) in several of the tested variables. The head width (55.02.60; 59.01.30), head length (75.0.40; 77.081.10), and nose width (11.3210.080.19),

respectively, were the variables with correlation coefficients at P0.01 that were substantially different. Age, head breadth, head length, and skull height could all be predicted using the study's linear regression equation of cephalic indices with other anthropometric parameters if one variable was known.

The findings of the current study revealed similarities in the cephalic indexes and facial expressions between the two tribes, which is likely evidence of shared genetic ancestry. Additionally, it's possible that similar cephalic indices and facial traits developed as a result of long-term cohabitation in the same environment.

Additionally, among the indigenous Igede and Idoma ethnic groups of Benue State, Nigeria, the results revealed a strong association between head width, bizygomatic distance, and other anthropometric characteristics that might be used to predict cephalic indices.

According to the findings of the current study, males and females of the Igede species had cephalic indices of 78.86 and 79.43, respectively, whereas those of the Idoma species were 78.43 and 79.60, respectively. These findings demonstrated that the Idoma and Igede ethnic groups each had a dominating head type that was mexocephalic.

For both ethnic groups, facial indices revealed a dominant hypereuriprosopic face type. While facial indices revealed a significant gender difference in the two ethnic groups tested, the cephalic index revealed sexual dimorphism between the two ethnic groups.

The findings indicated that the information from the present study might be applied to forensic anthropology to determine whether the Idoma and Igede ethnic groups in Nigeria's Benue State have comparable faces and heads.


All people living on this planet are members of the same species, Homo sapiens. Even genetically identical twins (monozygotic) differ in some quantifiable ways from each other. No two people are completely comparable in all of their measurable qualities.

Since skeletal development is influenced by a number of factors that result in differences in skeletal proportions between different geographical , these traits tend to change to varying degrees from birth to death, in health and disease, and since it is desirable to have some way of giving quantitative expression to variations that such traits exhibit (Gallot, 2004).

The study of anthropometry is a method for quantitatively expressing the various human body types. According to Boaz (2003), anthropometry is the measurement of humans, whether they are alive or dead or based on bone material.

Anthropometry has been used in the fields of forensic science and medicine since 1882, when French police expert Alphonse Bertillon created a method of criminal identification based on anthropometric measurements.

When compared to those who used crudely manufactured callipers, his technique described the enormous diversity of dimensions found in a single individual's skeleton (Zollikofer et al., 2002).

People who specialise in anthropometry are knowledgeable about the range of biological variability present in human populations and its causes, as well as skeletal anatomy and function, comparative osteology, human osteology, craniometry, and osteometry (Montagu et al., 2006).

This area of applied physical anthropology, which involves the measurement of the face and skull's bones in both live and deceased people, can be referred to as cephalometric anthropology. An individual's anthropometric traits directly relate to their sex, shape, and form.

These traits are manifestations of the internal structure and tissue components, which are in turn influenced by environmental and genetic factors (Danborno et al., 1997; Abbie et al., 2009). According to anthropometric data, cephalometric examinations can move beyond subjective judgements (Panero et al., 1979; Radoc et al., 2000).

Somatometry, cephalometry, and osteometry are subcategories of anthropometry. Somatometry is a branch of anthropometry that measures various body dimensions while preserving soft tissue, including the head and face whether the subject is alive or dead.

It is also regarded as a key instrument in the investigation of morphological differences within human . According to Zahra et al. (2006) and Oladipo et al. (2009), somatometry is helpful in the study of age estimation from various body segments in a particular of individuals.

It is impossible to overstate the significance of employing osteometry in anthropology as a course to measure the skeleton and its components. More frequently, anthropometry is utilised to gender-identify the skeletal remains.

The most well-known statistical model for sex determination has been developed as a result of numerous studies conducted worldwide on the determination of sex from a variety of human bones, including the skull, pelvis, long bones, scapula, clavicle, and the bones like metatarsals, metacarpals, phalanges, patella, vertebrae, and ribs, among others (Reichs etal., 1998).

Statistical information regarding the distribution of body dimensions in the population is utilised to optimise products in the fields of industrial design, ergonomics, and architecture today (Rajlakshmi et al., 2001; Safikhani et al., 2007).

The distribution of body measurements has changed due to changes in lifestyles, diets, and ethnic makeup of populations, such as the epidemic of obesity, which calls for continuous updating using anthropometric data collectors.

Anthropometric studies are currently carried out in evolutionary science to examine the evolutionary implications of variations in body proportion between groups whose ancestors lived in various environments.

According to Bergmann's rule, which states that people in cold climates will typically be larger than people in warm climates, and Allen's rule, which states that people in cold climates will typically have shorter, stubbier limbs than those in warm climates, human populations exhibit climatic variation patterns that are similar to those of other large-bodied mammals (Ganong, 2005).

In order to enhance comfort, health, safety, and productivity, ergonomic professionals nowadays develop tools, systems, and working procedures with an understanding of human factors in mind.

This includes organisational ergonomics in relation to metrics of communication, crew resource management, work design, schedules, and t; physical ergonomics in relation to human 3 anatomy, physiological, and biomechanical characteristics;

cognitive ergonomics in relation to perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, including human-computer interaction, mental workloads, decision-making, skilled performance, human reliability, work stress, training, and user experiences;

and When measuring the head and face for anthropometric studies, care is used to keep certain anthropometric landmarks in the correct alignment. The skull head is positioned so that a line runs from the inferior border of the left orbit to the upper border of the external auditory meatus, a condition known anatomically as the Frankfurt Plane.

This plane was employed for both pathological and comparative investigations on early humans and primates. According to previous studies' findings, anthropometry mixed with clinical methods produced knowledge on the craniofacial framework and traits that existed in different ethnic groups.

On this point, it is established how to treat congenital malformations of the head and face, which has aided in the development of a craniofacial databank on anomalies (Bharati et al., 2001).

Medical practitioners urgently require data on facial measures in order to accurately determine the degree of deviations from the norm, but these data are currently lacking in western and northern Europe, Asia, and Africa (Rajlakshmi, et al., 2001).

Human disparities in sexual orientation and race have also been studied. Although the skulls of African Americans, apes, and Europeans have a sharp relationship, sexual dimorphism is more pronounced in humans than in other older primates (Hernandez et al., 1992).

This was clarified utilising some fossilised skull and facial bone fragments that demonstrated sexual dimorphism in humankind. Additionally, comparable statistical data have effectively described human cranial dimensions in connection to mass (Oladipo et al., 2009).
The results of anthropometric studies on height, age, nasal and cephalic length in Nigeria have been sparse despite the abundance of data on the cranium and faces. At particular ages, the link between measurements is anticipated to remain stable.

Regression techniques, indices, and ratios are used to express these correlations. Due to the complex interactions between genetic, environmental, nutritional, and physiological factors, these proportions drastically alter from the foetal period through childhood and adolescence (Daniel, 2004).

According to Iscan (), cranial dimensions employing markers like height, nose, length, and cephalic indices differ across sexes and between ethnic groups.

• In Nigeria, anthropometric data for different ethnic groups are infrequently accessible to assess adult relationships and ancestor tracing.

There are no published comparative statistics on anthropometric factors and cephalometric indices among Nigeria's ethnic groupings.

Few anthropometric studies have been conducted in Nigeria's Benue State with minority populations.

• The relationships and distinctions among the various body parts may have anthropological significance in the state of crime.

• The anthropometric measurements' variables will be used as benchmark information for Nigeria's various ethnic groupings.

• The Igede and Idoma ethnic groups have different cephalometric indices.

Cephalometric indices in the two tribes will predict/correlate with other anthropometric outcomes.

5 • There is a correlation between the two ethnic groups' cephalometric indices.


1.4 AIM The current study's objective is to examine any potential ancestry between the Igede and Idoma ethnic groups in Benue State, Nigeria, utilising cephalometric markers.

1.5 OBJECTIVES Using anthropometric measurements, this study aims to: • Compare and determine the link between the Idoma and Igede ethnic groups in Benue State.

• To compare the cephalometric indices of different tribes in Nigeria using the information gathered from the two tribes.

• To investigate sexual dimorphisms between the two tribes' cephalometric indices.

• To investigate any correlations between the Igede and Idoma ethnic groups in Benue State, Nigeria's craniofacial indices.

The study is important because it will help resolve the long-running kingship feud between the Igede and Idoma tribes by using cephalometric indices to establish ancestral relationships between the two tribes (Hernandez et al., 1992).

The study is also relevant for forensic analyses of crime scenes that use the craniofacial presentations of Igede and Idoma tribe members. An anthropometric research could create a medical template for commercial items like shoes and eyewear.

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