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Language is the key point to any effective reasoning for every individual, without language, one cannot express its idea properly and effectively.
This thesis is an attempt to find out the barriers faced by Kurama adults in acquiring Hausa as second language. It is divided into five chapters, the first chapter introduces the study, purpose of the study, statement of the problem of the study, significance of the study, scope and limitation on the study and then basic assumption.
The second chapter is about literature review on second language – acquisition. Sociopsychological problem in language learning and learning strategies in an adult. The third chapter introduces the research method used in conducting this study. The fourth chapter is data presentation and discussion where the researcher identified barriers relating to phonetic and phonology interference of Kurama phonological system into Hausa language and barriers relating to syntax. The last chapter summarizes, discussion and recommendation concerning the study.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page – – – – – – – – – i
1.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 1
1.2 The Purpose of the study – – – – – – 1
1.3 Statement of the Problem – – – – – – 2
1.4 Significance of the study – – – – – – 3
1.5 Scope of limitation of the study – – – – – 5
1.6 Basic Assumption – – – – – – – 5
2.1 Literature Review – – – – – – – 7
2.2 Sociopsychlogical problem in language learning – – 17
2.3 Language learning strategies for the adult – – – 19
3.0 Introduction – – – – – – – – 26
Background of the study
3.1 Theories of Language Acquisition – – – – – 26
3.2 Behaviourists theory – – – – – – 26
3.3 Mediation theory – – – – – – – 32
3.4 Nativist theory – – – – – – – 33
3.5 Kurama Origin – – – – – – – 36
3.6 Hausa Origin – – – – – – – – 37
3.7 Population of the Study – – – – – – 41
3.8 Method of measuring attitude – – – – – 41
3.9 Data Collection – – – – – – – 43
Presentation and Discussion of Data
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – – – 44
4.2 Barriers Relating to Phonetics and Phonology – – – 45
4.3 The Interference to Kurama Phonological system into Hausa – 55
4.4 Barriers Relating to syntax – – – – – – 58
4.5 Types of Sentences Produced by the Kurama Adults – – 58
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 61
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 61
5.3 Recommendation – – – – – – – 63
References – – – – – – – – 63
In Nigeria today, we have different types of languages which according to some researchers are about 179 (C. L. Temple). A source among these are Kurama and Hausa. Kurama people are mostly found in Lere Local Government of Kaduna State. These people have been together with Hausa in that area from time immemorial, they shared some cultural values together (Notes on the tribes of Northern Nigeria).
Kurama people are known to be using Hausa as their second
language irrespective of whether they can speak it fluently or not and the Hausa people in the area are aware of this.
Seeing how researchers on language learning put less emphasis on barriers or problems facing language learners, the present research is intended to look into these barriers. A study research would be conducted on barriers facing Kurama adults acquiring Hausa as second language to know why, how and where these barriers do occur.
1.2 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to find out what are the barriers facing Kurama adults in acquiring Hausa as a second language. Problem of letters, pronunciation and formation of Hausa sentences is very much common among Kurama both adults and teenagers (Ndhahi, 1982). Stated that second language learners acquire certain grammatical aspects in an order similar to that followed by first language acquirers. It is also claimed that second language learners regardless of their age or first language background, acquire grammatical morphemes and structures in a similar sequence (Duley and Burt 1973).
Moreover, researchers in second language acquisition have
observed that the processes involved in the acquisition of first language and second language may be fundamentally the same i.e. that first language and second language learners of a given language adopt similar strategies in acquiring the language (Corder 1975, Macnmere, 1975 and Ndhahi, 1982).
Since there are processes or strategies in acquiring second language, then there will be barriers or problems moving together with those strategies. So the study intended looking into these problems with the hope of getting solutions to them. The study also intended to compare of problems or barriers found by other researchers with those in the present study. Therefore, the researcher’s aim is to know the barriers facing Kurama adults in acquiring Hausa as second language.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In acquiring second language is known to be faced with many
barriers especially in an adult, whose tongue is stiff and whose acquiring abilities have already developed, even though, (Dulay and Burt, 1973) claimed that second language learners regardless of their age or first language background, acquire grammatical morphemes and structures in a similar sequence. From the above statement both adults and teenagers encountered the same problem in acquiring second language. So it is hoped that, this research will look into these barriers encountered by second language acquirer and also to answer the following question.
- Why do Kurama adults encountered difficulties in learning Hausa as second
- What were the barriers the Kurama face when learning Hausa
- Do Hausa and Kurama share Linquistics similarities?
- Are they making any attempt to get rid of such barriers?
- Why do Kurama allowed these barriers continue from generation to
- Would they adopt similar ways like other languages acquirers in solving their own problems?
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Very little research work has been carried out on second language learning and more emphasis in children not in adults, and also barriers in second language learning is not a major concern to linguistics researchers. Ndhahi (1982) carried a research on second language acquisition in childhood but not on barriers and Yusuf, (1984) on phonological development of a Hausa child, also not on barriers but rather how the language is acquired. So the present study is purely on barriers facing adults second language acquirer.
The study will also serve as a guide to Kurama on how to properly construct Hausa sentence in accordance to its correct grammar. It will also serve as a guide to teachers teaching Hausa to Kurama children so that they would be able to avoid such barriers in adulthood.
It will also be a contribution towards stimulating linguists, and other researchers’ interest to cary out studies in this area of barriers in second language acquisition in an adults and in Hausa and Kurama in particular.
According to Tomori, (1981) that in spite of all the research as done so far in the field of language learning, we do not know enough about the best strategies for language teaching.
So to follow the mechanisms and strategies in teaching language will bring less barriers in acquiring language. Mc Donough (1981) gives support to the point made that studies of second language learning have the potential of giving course writers and teachers direct evidence of how people learn languages which coupled with the analysis of how various teaching techniques work can eventually lead to a systematic and rich account of the teaching learning process to be embodied in new types of language course and thus result in more successful learners.
So since language teachers do not follow the best strategies and mechanism, there will be problems here and there in acquiring second language. The study will carry a research work to find out the barriers affecting Kurama adult in acquiring Hausa as second language.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is concerned with barriers to second language
acquisition of a Kurama adult, it is impossible to deal adequately with the whole language. Some selection have been both obvious and necessary. The study is therefore specifically concerned with barriers on construction of Hausa sentence, letters pronunciation and formation of vocabulary. It will also give an indication to the process involved in language acquisition by Kurama adults acquiring Hausa as second language.
The study would hopefully deal with other aspects of linguistic development acquisition of the sound system, strategies adopt in solving language acquisition problems. This will be necessary to a Kurama adult where nothing have been done of language development.
1.6 BASIC ASSUMPTION
The following are the basic assumption of the study:-
Since many second language acquirers have been observed to progress through the same process to those observed in first language learning, so the problem faced in childhood will also be the same in adulthood. Chomsky, (1965) and Mcnell, (1965) stated that, every child is born with universal linguistic device for the acquisition of language, so it is the same devices used in adulthood and probably the same barriers have been encountered.
Assumption has also been made that adult language is not through acquisition process, that is, through gradual development of ability by using it naturally in communicative situation, but it is through learning process. That is, through a conscious process of accumulating knowledge of the vocabulary and grammar of a language.
Also those whose second language experience is primarily a learning one, tend not to develop the proficiency of those who have had an acquiring experience. Some features like vocabulary, grammar etc. of a second language are easier to acquire than others like phonology.
It is an assumption that on attending puberty period, it became very difficult to acquire another language fully. It is also believed that young children are quickier and more effective in second language acquisition than adults as Munir, (1992) stated that children learn, through informal Islamiya School. It will be very difficult for an adult learning or acquiring second language in such organization because the optimum age may be during the years of 11 – 16 Yule (1987) when the flexibility of the language acquisition faculty has not been completely lost and the maturation of cognitive skills allows a more effective working out of the regular features of the second language encountered.
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