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Previous research has found that the distance to the Central Business District (CBD) or major roads is the most important indicator of residential housing satisfaction, neglecting the characteristics of the house and the area in which the house is located.

As a result, this study investigates the extent to which residential housing happiness is influenced by structural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors.

The study used a survey design to perform this research, with 303 buildings chosen for questionnaire administration. The study area was initially defined and divided into zones using multi-stage sampling approaches, and buildings were then chosen at random based on their categories in the second step.

In the third stage, streets in the selected zones were picked based on their conditions, and finally, questionnaires were systematically distributed to houses in the classed zones’ designated building types for data collection. The information gathered was analysed using both descriptive (frequency, mean, etc.) and inferential (regression analysis) methods.

The findings of the stepwise regression analysis revealed that the most important determinants of residential housing satisfaction are building type (R2 =0.132, P 0.05), floor material type (R2 =0.109, P 0.05), number of gated streets (R2 =0.089, P 0.05), and security type (R2=0.112, P 0.05).

The result is that home structural and neighbourhood qualities are more relevant than location considerations in explaining variances in residential housing satisfaction.

As a result, it is advised that the government prioritise the creation of affordable bungalow buildings with plastered floors in areas without gated streets but with an effective vigilante security system.




The availability and quality of housing have a considerable impact on people’s lives, influencing employment and transportation options, as well as overall quality of life. With household formation rates continuing to rise, housing demand fueled by the buy-to-let market, and housing supply staying mostly steady, there are substantial shortages of adequate homes in high-population areas.

Davis and Everest (2004).Housing market forces are complicated, influenced by income and property prices, demographics and social change, and economic factors such as employment and consumer confidence.

Despite growing prices, the supply of new homes in high-demand areas has remained relatively stable. House construction is a high-risk business, and developers will adopt a cautious approach to avoid being exposed to a collapsing market.

home developers in Lagos State confront obstacles such as limited supply of land, home builders, and development capabilities in terms of cash and management resources.

The dense mixed-tenure designs encouraged by planning policy and the requirement to maximise land value are more difficult to implement, especially in terms of planning, design, and partnerships with local governments.

Finance requirements are significantly higher, with major upfront construction investment not being recovered until late in the development programme, further limiting development potential. These limits have had an impact on the provision of low-cost housing estate for Lagos State citizens.

The provision of low-cost housing complexes takes into account their proximity to shopping centres (Opoku and Abdul-Muhmin, 2010). It pays close attention to the management of support and public facilities in order to improve residents’ residential satisfaction,

and it also adopts a policy of building different sizes of units to meet the needs of residents with large families in order to improve the quality of life in the country’s low-income urban communities.

This research project will analyse the availability of public low-cost housing in Lagos State. The study’s focus is on finding what is truly required to create an appropriate supply of low-cost housing that is affordable and provides resident happiness,

beginning with dwelling unit support services, then moving on to public and neighbourhood facilities, then dwelling unit features, and finally the social environment.

According to the findings of a study conducted by (Mohammad, Mansor, and Yong 2010) on the assessment of residential satisfaction in newly designed public low-cost housing in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, residential satisfaction indexes such as improved security management control, perimeter roads,

and proper waste management system have high positive correlations with dwelling unit features, social environment, support services, and public facilities, and a low positive correlation with neighbours.

Residents’ socioeconomic characteristics such as age, family size, working wives, and previous habitation are negatively connected with residential satisfaction, but residents’ race, employment type, floor level, and length of residency are positively correlated.


Residential happiness in public low-cost housing is improved by increasing security control, perimeter roads, and a proper waste management system. Despite the importance of low-cost housing delivery in Lagos State, there appears to be no framework in place to achieve this goal.

Because of the constant rise in population, this dynamic has resulted in the formation of informal cities within the Lagos metropolis. The use of real estate is a response to the expansion of the informal city in Lagos.

In terms of urbanisation, Lagos’ experience can be likened to that of Mexico City, which has a population of almost 18 million people (Hamilton, 2006). Nonetheless, Mexico City is often regarded as a major global provider of accounting, advertising, banking, finance, and legal services.

Slum settlements and informal regions of Lagos are the result of insufficient low-cost housing. Because these impoverished urban people have minimal access to urban land, they become squatters, living in shanty dwellings made of low-cost and hazardous materials such as bamboo, straw, and polythene. Other kinds of urban poor, according to Sijuwade (2008),

are persons who are used to living in single-roomed homes. He said that more than five members of the household dwell in the same cramped room.

(Mohammad, Mansor, and Yong 2010) discovered predictors of residential satisfaction in their study on the assessment of residential satisfaction in Malaysia. As a result, this study will investigate the extent to which structural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors influence inhabitants’ contentment. The following research questions will be addressed by this study:

i. How do structural and neighbourhood characteristics affect residential satisfaction in the research area?

ii. Do structural, neighbourhood, and socioeconomic characteristics influence rental value in the research area?


1.3.1 AIM The study’s goal is to evaluate the relative importance of structural, neighbourhood, and socioeconomic factors as predictors of resident satisfaction in the Shagari low-cost housing estate in Lagos State’s Alimosho Local Government Area.


The goals are as follows:

1. Determine the socioeconomic characteristics of occupants of low-cost dwellings in Lagos State.

2. Investigate the structural and neighbourhood characteristics of the dwellings in the study region.

3. Determine the occupants’ degree of satisfaction with the rent paid in the study region.

4. Determine whether the rents paid are influenced by structural, neighbourhood, and socioeconomic factors.

5. Consider the findings’ policy implications for public low-cost housing provision.


Ho – The structural, neighbourhood, and socioeconomic characteristics of housing have little influence on rental value.

Hi – The structural, neighbourhood, and socioeconomic characteristics of housing all have a substantial impact on rental value.


This research will look at the structural, neighbourhood, and socioeconomic characteristics of low-cost housing in Lagos State. The research will be conducted in a public low-cost housing development in Ipaja, Alimosho Local Government Area, Lagos State.

It will go into the building materials, location, neighbourhood characteristics, resident characteristics, dwelling units, rental value, and dwelling unit features of low-cost housing.


This study’s data will provide structural, neighbourhood, and socioeconomic characteristics of low-income housing, as well as allow for accurate classification of dwelling types. This research will highlight the obstacles to proper low-cost housing estate provision (materials, location, and administration). It will also indicate which of these characteristics is more important in terms of resident satisfaction.


Shagari Estate was a Federal Low-Income Housing Scheme developed by the Federal Government between 1979 and 1981 by Alhaji Shehu Shagari during the First Republic. It was originally intended to offer housing for low-income earners, who were primarily artisans, craftsmen, and junior civil servants, among others.

The Estate’s construction began in 1980 and was distributed to the target group (low-income earners) using a ballot mechanism between 1982 and 1983. The Estate is located in Ipaja, Alimosho Local Government Area, which was previously on the fringes of the city. It is separated into four zones, each of which is properly networked.

Alimosho Local Government Area is located in Lagos State’s northwestern region. Which is located in the narrow coastal plain of the Bight of Benin in the south-western region of Nigeria, West Africa. The Local Government covers over 300 square kilometres (9 km2) of land and has an increasing population of over 3-4 million people/inhabitants.

It borders the local governments of Agege, Ifako-Ijaiye, Ikeja, Oshodi-Isolo, Amuwo-Odofin, and Ojo. Lagos State is one of the 36 states that make up Nigeria’s Federal Republic. It stretches roughly from latitude 6°2’N to 6°4’N and longitude 2°45’East to 4°20’East. Water covers around 787 square kilometres, or 22 percent of its overall area of 3,577 square kilometres.

The state is located in the south-western section of Nigeria, with the state’s southern boundary surrounded by around 180 km of Atlantic coastline, and the state’s northern and eastern boundaries formed by Ogun State.

The western border was made by the Republic of Benin. The state has the smallest land area in Nigeria, with 358,861 hectares or 3577 square kilometres (Odumosu, 1999).

This accounts for only 0.4 percent of Nigeria’s total land area. This size accommodates around 10% of Nigeria’s total 140 million inhabitants. The state is also Nigeria’s most urbanised (Ayeni, 1979). Rural areas are home to only around 5% of the state’s overall population.

This has major implications for state land use planning, particularly in metropolitan regions. It also has a significant impact on infrastructure. Except for Abuja, Lagos stands out as the best served with infrastructure amenities in Nigeria,

despite the fact that these facilities are the most inadequate due to high population density. Despite its small size, the state is also the most prosperous.

Lagos metropolis is mostly built on low ground, having 18782 hectares of built-up area. This region has a population of more than 18 million people. In a growing African Megacity,

the predicted average population density of the built-up area of Lagos metropolis is around 20,000 people per square kilometre. Christians account for around 54.6% of the religious population of Lagos, while Muslims account for approximately 44.33% (Odumosu, 1999).

The remaining 1.1% is the proportion population of other religious groupings. In 1985, the urban land usage was roughly 172 square kilometres, according to the Master Plan for Metropolitan Lagos (MPML). 1985 (Master Plan for Metropolitan Lagos).

The current land use distribution of Lagos shows that residential areas occupy around 9669 hectares (52.1%) of the city’s total built-up area.

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