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Housing condition (HC) is a broad term for the standard of living environment. Individual and household wellbeing, health, and productivity are all recognised to be affected by housing conditions (Coker, Awokola, Olomolaiye, & Booth, 2007; Krieger & Higgins, 2002). Housing problems in terms of quality appear to vary by location.

This is due to a set of determinants, including individuals’ socio-cultural backgrounds, climate, and relief, which cause what is acceptable as the norm or standard in one region to differ from what is acceptable in another.

The extent of quantitative housing shortfalls varies across emerging and industrialised countries, as well as between the poor and the rich. Ibimilua (2011) highlighted that the poor have insufficient access to quality housing, whereas the wealthier have a better probability of acquiring good quality housing.

Nigeria’s National Housing Policy was established in 1991 to give long-term solutions to the qualitative and quantitative housing difficulties that inhabitants face [Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN), 1991, 2002]. It was revised four times: in 2004, 2006, and 2012 (FGN, 2004, 2006, and 2012; Olofinji, 2015).

Despite these efforts to create a good and workable policy framework for the housing industry, millions of Nigerians, especially those in Lagos, live in substandard homes. This shows that Nigeria as a country has yet to meet its people’ and inhabitants’ housing needs.

Several studies have focused on the elements that influence housing conditions (Fiadzo, Houston, and Godwin, 2001; Fiadzo, 2004; Olotuah, 2006d; Amole, 2007; Mallo and Anigbogu, 2009; Amao, 2012).

These studies show that the factors influencing housing condition (HC) differ depending on location. As Lawrence (1995) correctly observed, housing conditions vary depending on the circumstance. Rapid population expansion, low economic status of most urban households, insufficient governmental resources, and a general increase in the cost of housing abound in Nigerian metropolitan areas.

As a result, studies (Onokerhoraye, 1976d; Mabogunje, 1985; 1976; Diogu, 2002; Olotuah, 2003; Olotuah and Adesiji, 2005) have revealed that the country’s dismal housing quality has manifested in structurally unsound and inferior buildings in both urban and rural locations.

Despite the fact that the UNHABITAT (2006) assessment reveals that Lagos State has one of the most serious housing difficulties in Nigeria, with a large number of very low quality housing, there has been little published work on the particular causes of housing condition in Lagos State. A deeper grasp of this subject can assist policymakers and housing professionals in Lagos State and other Nigerian states in providing high-quality homes.

1.2 Statement Of the Research Problem

Previous research has demonstrated that housing quality has a significant impact on the well-being and productivity of people, households, and communities. However, there has been minimal effort to study the quality of homes produced entirely by the government and those constructed through Public Private Partnership (PPP) arrangements in Lagos State and Nigeria in general.

Housing is one of the most basic necessities of existence, but it is also one of the most expensive and capital-intensive. With increasing population and urbanisation, the availability of housing in many developing countries is insufficient to meet the needs of the majority of people.

As a result, the cost of housing is rising, and the wealthy can afford the homes they wish, while the poor are frequently stuck with substandard housing. Access to decent housing is a multifaceted issue. As a result, major considerations in the provision of decent housing around the world include availability, accessibility, demand, contentment, preferences, cost, and sustainability.

It was discovered that both public housing and PPP homes looked to be of varying quality. various of these lower-quality housing units in various state neighbourhoods have been concerning due to the harmful impact they have on health and productivity.

In many cases, there appears to be a considerable gap in housing conditions between income groups, and it is unclear how inhabitants appreciate or would judge the quality of the various houses.

Because there are various dimensions and aspects that define housing condition, physical housing surroundings may not immediately indicate a definitive housing condition in the studied region.

The uncertainty of respondents’ value ratings of the quality of various housing of apparent disparity between income housing classifications in terms of housing environment is significant in the aggregation of housing condition in the state, which has so many dimensions and factors impinging on it.

Many unfavourable elements in Lagos State work against attaining the high housing standards established by industrialised nations. Among these problems include a shrinking national economy, poverty, unemployment, a poor educational level, a lack of use of local building materials, and expensive material and labour expenses.

The purpose of this study is to reveal the reality of the situation as it relates to housing condition in the study area (Biondic & Sepic, 2002; CSH, 2009; Foster, 2000; Gandil, 1995; Goodman, 1978; HUD, 2011a; Krieger & Higgins, 2002; Lawrence, 1995; Needham & Verhage 1997; Son, Won & Moon, 2003; Thomas & King, 1972; Walker, 1981).

In Nigeria few studies have been carried out on HC or related issues in some cities/urban centres- like Ibadan, Oyo State; Port Harcourt, Rivers State; Akure, Ondo State; Osogbo, Osun State; Ilorin, Kwara State; and Jos, Plateau State (Coker, et al, 2007; Oguntoke, Muili, &Bankole, 2009; Olayiwola, Adeleye & Jiboye, 2006; Olotuah, 2003, 2006).

However, other writers (Ilesanmi, 2012; Jiboye, 2009; Oguntoke et al, 2009) contend that only a few research on housing conditions or related topics such as illness pattern, satisfaction, correlates, and quality of life in Lagos State have been conducted. According to the literature,

there have been few recent studies on this topic in selected residential estates in Lagos State, because those that have been done have been limited to parts such as an organisation or a specific housing estate/neighborhood, or small sections of the state, rather than the more comprehensive way in which this study is being conceived.

Because of the scarcity of empirical data, comprehension of the levels, characteristics, and theoretical basis of housing condition in chosen residential estates in the research region has been hampered.

According to the current published works (Akinmoladun & Oluwoye, 2007; Jiboye, 2009; Fatoye, 2009; Ilesanmi, 2010), there are differences in the quality of housing in the various residential estates created by the government in Lagos State. This is evident in the disparities in resident satisfaction levels. However, little is known about Lagos inhabitants’ perceptions of the quality of government-built housing and the important elements that impact this.

Furthermore, little study focus has been paid to examining the differences and similarities in housing quality amongst different residential estates in Lagos State. Given that housing conditions influence the health, welfare, and productivity of individuals, households, and communities,

it is important to explore and comprehend what parts of the residential environment can be altered to produce better housing condition outcomes. In this context, the current study intended to pursue the research goal indicated in the following section in the selected government developed and public private partnership (PPP) residential estates in Lagos, Nigeria.

1.3 Aims and Objectives Of The Research
The research sought to investigate the housing conditions of public and PPP residential estates in Lagos State, Nigeria, in order to identify factors and provide a framework for assessment and improvement.

To accomplish this goal, the study pursued the following objectives: (i) examine the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of residents in the selected residential estates in the study area;

(ii) analyse the physical characteristics of housing units and the neighbourhood environment of the selected residential estates in the study area; and

(iii) evaluate residents perception of the quality of housing in the selected residential estates in the study area.

1.4 Research Questions
To fulfil the study’s goal, a variety of research questions were posed, to which the research aimed to provide answers. The study questions are as follows:

(i) what are the demographic and socioeconomic features of residents in the selected Lagos State residential estates?

(ii) What are the physical characteristics of the dwelling units and surrounding neighbourhood surroundings in the research area’s selected government-built and government-private partnership-built residential estates?

(iii) How do the residents of these estates rate the quality of their living conditions?

(iv) What are the determinants of housing condition in the study area’s selected residential estates?

1.5 Justification for the Study
Three reasons were given to justify the study. The importance of understanding how the quality of “housing” produced by the government may be made to match investment costs for the benefit of all stakeholders (investors, buyers, residents, professionals, and the general public) cannot be overstated.

The second need was to examine the physical characteristics of the dwelling given, the personal characteristics of the occupants, and the qualities achieved as a result of the assessment. The integration of these into developing the link of these traits was critical.

It was also critical to address the requirement to offer meaningful information to architects and other housing professionals for planning, designing, and constructing residential spaces. Third, the current study was necessary in light of the magnitude of urbanisation in the Lagos megacity,

which is accommodated by Lagos State, resulting in increasing population, acute housing shortage (from literature), and the need to find long-term solutions to housing condition issues in Lagos State.

As a result, the purpose of this study was to forward the research goal in the subject field. Given that there are several dimensions of housing, this study concentrated on the physical characteristics of dwelling units and neighbourhood environments,

as well as residents’ perceptions of the quality of these two components of housing, which are influenced by the residents’ personal (demographic and socioeconomic) characteristics.

1.6 Scope of The Study
The study’s focus was restricted to residential estates in Lagos State, Nigeria. Lagos State was chosen for this study since it was Nigeria’s former Federal Capital and national economic capital.

Because of these factors, Lagos has a large population, resulting in a high population density, residential density, and residential occupancy ratio. It is also the most urbanised state in Nigeria, with the largest urban agglomeration, and one of the two most populous on the African continent.

It exclusively covered government-owned housing schemes/estates under various tenure systems, as well as housing schemes/estates controlled by the government in collaboration with private companies under a Joint Venture (J.V.) scheme, often known as Public Private Partnerships (PPP). This suggests that the study excluded dwellings built by individuals or private housing estate developers in Lagos State.

The housing schemes/estates studied in this study are classified as low, moderate, or high income earners. It excludes mixed typologies such as low-middle-high income earners, middle-high income earners, and low-middle-high income earners.

1.7 Definitions of Terms
Housing, or more broadly living spaces, refers to the communal construction and assigned usage of houses or buildings for the purpose of sheltering people — the planning or provision supplied by an authority, with related definitions.

Condition: The state of something in terms of its appearance, quality, or functional order, or the circumstances or factors affecting the way people live or work, particularly in terms of their well-being.

Affordability can be described as the cost or price of anything in simple words.

An urban area, also known as a built-up area, is a human community with a high population density and built-environment infrastructure. Urban areas are formed by urbanisation and are classified as cities, towns, conurbations, or suburbs by urban morphology.

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